Timestamp Ordering Protocol in Hindi and English with all Rules For Students of B.Tech, B.E, MCA, BCA, B.Sc., M.Sc., Courses - As Per IP University Syllabus and Other Engineering Courses
Views: 94291 Easy Engineering Classes
At 4:30: A mistake: step 3: When the file server gets the token, it "decrypts" (not "encrypts") the token with the secret key shared with TGS. In Greek mythology, Kerberos is a dog with three heads. But today I will not talk about the dog. Kerberos is an authentication protocol for client/server applications. I will demonstrate with an example how Kerberos works. Keep in mind, Kerberos implements private key encryption. Playlist: Basic Cryptography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vk3py9M2IfE&list=PLSNNzog5eyduN6o4e6AKFHekbH5-37BdV Advanced Cryptography: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmA2QWSLSPg&list=PLSNNzog5eydtwsdT__t5WtRgvpfMzpTc7 Please leave comments, questions and Please subscribe to my channel Many thanks, Sunny Classroom
Views: 97279 Sunny Classroom
Timestamps show that the blocks are connected in a chronological order. It marks the time for each transaction on the blockchain. Simply put, the timestamp proves when and what has happened on the blockchain, and it’s tamper-proof. Timestamp plays to role of a notary, and it’s more credible than a traditional one. Because nobody can alter the information on the blockchain. Given the timestamp feature, blockchain technology is suitable for areas such as intellectual property protection. For instance, when you have written a thesis, You want to consult an industry expert before publishing, but you are afraid the expert might steal your work. Under such a scenario, you only need to save it on the blockchain to easily prove your ownership over the article. Huobi Global Exchange: https://www.huobi.com Follow us on: Blog: https://blog.huobi.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/huobiglobalofficial Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/huobiglobalofficial Medium: https://medium.com/@huobiglobal Telegram: https://t.me/huobiglobalofficial Twitter: https://twitter.com/HuobiGlobal Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/HuobiGlobal
Views: 1331 Huobi Global
What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE meaning - CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE definition - CRYPTOGRAPHIC NONCE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ In cryptography, a nonce is an arbitrary number that may only be used once. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. They can also be useful as initialization vectors and in cryptographic hash function. A nonce is an arbitrary number used only once in a cryptographic communication, in the spirit of a nonce word. They are often random or pseudo-random numbers. Many nonces also include a timestamp to ensure exact timeliness, though this requires clock synchronization between organizations. The addition of a client nonce ("cnonce") helps to improve the security in some ways as implemented in digest access authentication. To ensure that a nonce is used only once, it should be time-variant (including a suitably fine-grained timestamp in its value), or generated with enough random bits to ensure a probabilistically insignificant chance of repeating a previously generated value. Some authors define pseudo-randomness (or unpredictability) as a requirement for a nonce. Authentication protocols may use nonces to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. For instance, nonces are used in HTTP digest access authentication to calculate an MD5 digest of the password. The nonces are different each time the 401 authentication challenge response code is presented, thus making replay attacks virtually impossible. The scenario of ordering products over the Internet can provide an example of the usefulness of nonces in replay attacks. An attacker could take the encrypted information and—without needing to decrypt—could continue to send a particular order to the supplier, thereby ordering products over and over again under the same name and purchase information. The nonce is used to give 'originality' to a given message so that if the company receives any other orders from the same person with the same nonce, it will discard those as invalid orders. A nonce may be used to ensure security for a stream cipher. Where the same key is used for more than one message and then a different nonce is used to ensure that the keystream is different for different messages encrypted with that key; often the message number is used. Secret nonce values are used by the Lamport signature scheme as a signer-side secret which can be selectively revealed for comparison to public hashes for signature creation and verification. Initialization vectors may be referred to as nonces, as they are typically random or pseudo-random. Nonces are used in proof-of-work systems to vary the input to a cryptographic hash function so as to obtain a hash for a certain input that fulfills certain arbitrary conditions. In doing so, it becomes far more difficult to create a "desirable" hash than to verify it, shifting the burden of work onto one side of a transaction or system. For example, proof of work, using hash functions, was considered as a means to combat email spam by forcing email senders to find a hash value for the email (which included a timestamp to prevent pre-computation of useful hashes for later use) that had an arbitrary number of leading zeroes, by hashing the same input with a large number of nonce values until a "desirable" hash was obtained. Similarly, the bitcoin block-chain hashing algorithm can be tuned to an arbitrary difficulty by changing the required minimum/maximum value of the hash so that the number of bitcoins awarded for new blocks does not increase linearly with increased network computation power as new users join. This is likewise achieved by forcing bitcoin miners to add nonce values to the value being hashed to change the hash algorithm output. Because cryptographic hash algorithms cannot easily be predicted based on their inputs, this makes the act of blockchain hashing and the possibility of being awarded bitcoins something of a lottery, where the first "miner" to find a nonce that delivers a desirable hash is awarded valuable bitcoins.
Views: 6821 The Audiopedia
The Timestamps Song. (Lyrics below. ) Description: Distributed Systems Timestamps, with a Ukulele. Lamport and Vector Timestamps are very important concepts in Distributed Systems/Cloud Computing Systems. Here's a Song Mnemonic Tutorial for these timestamps, played with a Ukulele. Lyrics: Lamport timestamps, they're so easy; When you send a message, increment your timestamp; When you receive a message, add 1 to the Max of what you got and what you have (that's it!). Vector timestamps, they're even easier; When you send a message, increment your entry; When you receive a message, increment your entry; For the other entries, just take max (that's it!). (C) Indranil Gupta, March 2016.
Views: 6511 Indranil Gupta
Information Security: Principles and Practice, 2nd edition, by Mark Stamp Chapter 10: Real-World Security Protocols Sections 10.1-10.2 intro, SSH Class Lecture, 2011
Views: 6714 Mark Stamp
What is CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX? What does CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX mean? CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX meaning - CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX definition - CRYPTOGRAPHIC MESSAGE SYNTAX explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) is the IETF's standard for cryptographically protected messages. It can be used to digitally sign, digest, authenticate or encrypt any form of digital data. CMS is based on the syntax of PKCS#7, which in turn is based on the Privacy-Enhanced Mail standard. The newest version of CMS (as of 2009) is specified in RFC 5652 (but see also RFC 5911 for updated ASN.1 modules conforming to ASN.1 2002). The architecture of CMS is built around certificate-based key management, such as the profile defined by the PKIX working group. CMS is used as the key cryptographic component of many other cryptographic standards, such as S/MIME, PKCS #12 and the RFC 3161 Digital timestamping protocol. OpenSSL is open source software that can encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify, compress and uncompress CMS documents.
Views: 684 The Audiopedia
Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0401 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/sy0401cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - A useful security authentication technique is the use of one-time passwords. In this video, you’ll learn how one-time passwords are implemented and the differences between the HOTP and TOTP algorithms. - - - - - Download entire video course: http://professormesser.link/401adyt Get the course on MP3 audio: http://professormesser.link/401vdyt Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 31824 Professor Messer
Bitcoin is in the heavy accumulation stage, where strong hands are buying the dips, and weak hands are selling the price rallies. Are you still accumulating BTC? Today we dive into a report by Adamant Capital, titled Bitcoin In Heavy Accumulation. This report explains that Bitcoin is in the accumulation zone, and gives evidence on why a bitcoin bull run may be just around the corner. Adamant capital put out similar reports in 2012, just before the 2013-2014 bitcoin bull run, and then again in 2015, just before the 2017-2018 bull run. They were correct twice before, will the third time be the ultimate charm? 👌👌Subscribe to The Chico Channel--https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHop-jpf-huVT1IYw79ymPw?sub_confirmation=1 ⏰ Time Stamps ⏰ 00:08 Introduction 00:40 Adamant Capital Releases Report: Bitcoin In Heavy Accumulation 01:25 Bitcoin Unrealized Profit & Losses Signals We Are In The Hope Stage 02:41 Bitcoin Holder Net Position Change Signals Long Term Holders Are Accumulating Bitcoin 04:23 Historical Data Shows Bitcoin Is Undervalued & We Are In The Accumulation Phase 06:23 Markets Are Moving From Overvalued To Overvalued: Strong Hands Accumulating & Weak Hands Are Selling 06:58 The Accumulation Cylinder Leading Into The Bull Run 07:33 CME Futures Have Went Net Long On Bitcoin For The 1st Time Since April 2018 08:03 The Financialization of Bitcoin Is Happening Before Our Eyes: Major Players Getting Involved 08:35 Bitcoin Is Scaling & Improving The protocol 09:04 Conclusion 📺Watch These Videos Again📺 Asking Hot Babes About Bitcoin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW152sH64Yk&t=300s The Case For The Million Dollar Bitcoin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q1IIy0VybgQ&t=193s Global Economic Collapse Is Near https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_aPTX4elGQc 🤫►► ► Chico Crypto Exclusive Links ◄◄◄🤫 🔥Join The Chat On Telegram 🔥 https://t.me/chicocrypto1 👉🏻Follow Me On Twitter https://goo.gl/gmsDXa 👌👌Subscribe to The Chico Channel--https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHop-jpf-huVT1IYw79ymPw?sub_confirmation=1 💥Buy A Ledger & Keep Your Crypto Safe💥 https://www.ledger.com/products/ledger-nano-s?r=c56a&tracker=MY_TRACKER 👍Download The Brave Browser $BAT & Support Crypto! https://brave.com/chi034 💲 💲Want to buy your first crypto or Bitcoins? Sign up for Coinbase and get $10 in free Bitcoin https://www.coinbase.com/join/5270447e2c6ce91e1c000170 👉Sign Up For Gate.io Exchange https://www.gate.io/signup/2537912 📚 📚Educational links and crypto resources for starting in cryptocurrency Check the prices and stats of the most popular cryptocurrencies with Coinmarketcap https://coinmarketcap.com/ What is Bitcoin, altcoins, Ethereum and other cryptocurrencies https://www.coindesk.com/information/what-is-bitcoin 🏺Cryptocurrency Donations: Support The Channel!!🏺 BTC 3ArFPC5ik9tBy8ART6R2X59qiNXatw5EAG ETH 0xF1d402C0175a9fa80dD770e82fa0BD50FDab0EbD #bitcoin #crypto #btc #cryptocurrency #altcoin #blockchain #ethereum #eth #trading #bullish #rich #money #investment #wealth #millionaire **Disclaimer** The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial legal or tax advice. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Purchasing cryptocurrencies poses considerable risk of loss. The speaker does not guarantee any particular outcome. Past performance does not indicate future results. Open CDPs at your own risk! This information is what was found publicly on the internet. This information could’ve been doctored or misrepresented by the internet. All information is meant for public awareness and is public domain. This information is not intended to slander harm or defame any of the actors involved but to show what was said through their social media accounts. Please take this information and do your own research.
Views: 20572 Chico Crypto
Is the Fusion Protocol & Blockchain the next big thing? The DeFi (decentralized finance) landscape is starting to take form, and Fusion is spearheading the development of it with their unique blockchain, crypto-financial smart contracts, and features only seen on Fusion. Does Ethereum have something to worry about? Tune in to find out! 👌👌Subscribe to The Chico Channel--https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHop-jpf-huVT1IYw79ymPw?sub_confirmation=1 ⏰ Time Stamps ⏰ 00:08 Introduction: DeFI (Decentralized Finance) 00:46 Introducing Fusion: Changing Finance For Good 01:27 The General Fusion Architecture 01:37 Hierarchical Hybrid Consensus Mechanism (HHCM) 02:38 Distributed Control Rights Management System (DCRM) 03:20 Private Key Generation & Key Sharding 04:04 Fusion Lock In & Lock Out 05:05 Crypto Industries Top Researches Are Validating DCRM 05:20 Fusion Crypto-Financial Smart Contracts 06:49 Fusion Time-Lock Function 07:40 Fusion Payable Staged Network 2.0 07:57 Fusion Asset Enhancement & Creation 08:15 Fusion Quantum Swapping of Assets 09:04 Major Fusion Mass Adoption Real World Partnership: Automotive Exchange Platform 09:52 Conclusion Fusion Website https://fusion.org/ Fusion Payable Staged Network (Try Out Fusion Yourself) https://fusion.org/psn/ Fusion Telegram https://t.me/FUSIONFoundation ****This Is A Sponsored Video***** Chico Crypto & Fusion have entered into an agreement for a sponsored review of their platform. In exchange for the review, Chico Crypto has received a payment of $3200 dollars paid in Ethereum. 📺Watch These Videos Again📺 Bitcoin Price Scandal You Won’t Believe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FAOX7Hcdrag Top Blockchain Projects By Developer Activity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sXmQrhp4bFo&t=1s Tether & Bitfinex Investigation! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-WZOyOV8yA&t=4s 🤫►► ► Chico Crypto Exclusive Links ◄◄◄🤫 🔥Join The Chat On Telegram 🔥 https://t.me/chicocrypto1 👉🏻Follow Me On Twitter https://goo.gl/gmsDXa 👌👌Subscribe to The Chico Channel--https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHop-jpf-huVT1IYw79ymPw?sub_confirmation=1 💥Buy A Ledger & Keep Your Crypto Safe💥 https://www.ledger.com/products/ledger-nano-s?r=c56a&tracker=MY_TRACKER 👍Download The Brave Browser $BAT & Support Crypto! https://brave.com/chi034 💲 💲Want to buy your first crypto or Bitcoins? Sign up for Coinbase and get $10 in free Bitcoin https://www.coinbase.com/join/5270447e2c6ce91e1c000170 👉Sign Up For Gate.io Exchange https://www.gate.io/signup/2537912 📚 📚Educational links and crypto resources for starting in cryptocurrency Check the prices and stats of the most popular cryptocurrencies with Coinmarketcap https://coinmarketcap.com/ What is Bitcoin, altcoins, Ethereum and other cryptocurrencies https://www.coindesk.com/information/what-is-bitcoin 🏺Cryptocurrency Donations: Support The Channel!!🏺 BTC 3ArFPC5ik9tBy8ART6R2X59qiNXatw5EAG ETH 0xF1d402C0175a9fa80dD770e82fa0BD50FDab0EbD #crypto #fusion #bitcoin #ethereum #eth #btc #cryptocurrency #altcoin #invest #wealth #rich #defi #money #finance #blockchain **Disclaimer** The information contained herein is for informational purposes only. Nothing herein shall be construed to be financial legal or tax advice. The content of this video is solely the opinions of the speaker who is not a licensed financial advisor or registered investment advisor. Purchasing cryptocurrencies poses considerable risk of loss. The speaker does not guarantee any particular outcome. Past performance does not indicate future results. Open CDPs at your own risk! This information is what was found publicly on the internet. This information could’ve been doctored or misrepresented by the internet. All information is meant for public awareness and is public domain. This information is not intended to slander harm or defame any of the actors involved but to show what was said through their social media accounts. Please take this information and do your own research.
Views: 9965 Chico Crypto
What is a blockchain and how do they work? I'll explain why blockchains are so special in simple and plain English! 💰 Want to buy Bitcoin or Ethereum? Buy for $100 and get $10 free (through my affiliate link): https://www.coinbase.com/join/59284524822a3d0b19e11134 📚 Sources can be found on my website: https://www.savjee.be/videos/simply-explained/how-does-a-blockchain-work/ 🐦 Follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/savjee ✏️ Check out my blog: https://www.savjee.be ✉️ Subscribe to newsletter: https://goo.gl/nueDfz 👍🏻 Like my Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/savjee
Views: 2923912 Simply Explained - Savjee
Views: 2672303 CuriousInventor
David Mazières: "The Stellar Consensus Protocol: A Federated Model for Internet-level Consensus" This talk presents federated Byzantine agreement (FBA), a generalization of the standard Byzantine agreement problem. Unlike traditional Byzantine agreement--which presupposes unanimous agreement on system membership--the FBA model grants organizations individual control over whom to trust, allowing membership to grow organically out of pairwise relationships between participants. Compared to proof-of-work and proof-of-stake, two other decentralized alternatives to Byzantine agreement, FBA enables far more efficient constructions with greater margins of computational security. The talk further presents the Stellar consensus protocol (SCP), the first FBA protocol. SCP forms the backbone of the Stellar payment network, where it secures financial transactions. Other potential applications include secure timestamping and strengthening certificate transparency.
Views: 33398 Talks at Google
A replay attack occurs when an unauthorized user captures network traffic and then sends the communication to its original destination, acting as the original sender. To prevent replay attacks you can implement timestamps and sequence numbers. References: Dunkerley, D., & Samuelle, T. (2014). Secure Network Administration. In Mike Meyers' CompTIA Security Certification passport, fourth edition (exam SY0-401) (4th ed., p. 300). New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Views: 21610 Simple Security
What is DIGITAL SIGNATURE? What does DIGITAL SIGNATURE mean? DIGITAL SIGNATURE explanation. A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or documents. A valid digital signature gives a recipient reason to believe that the message was created by a known sender, that the sender cannot deny having sent the message (authentication and non-repudiation), and that the message was not altered in transit (integrity). Digital signatures are a standard element of most cryptographic protocol suites, and are commonly used for software distribution, financial transactions, contract management software, and in other cases where it is important to detect forgery or tampering. Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature, but not all electronic signatures use digital signatures. In some countries, including the United States, India, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland and the countries of the European Union, electronic signatures have legal significance. Digital signatures employ asymmetric cryptography. In many instances they provide a layer of validation and security to messages sent through a nonsecure channel: Properly implemented, a digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender. Digital seals and signatures are equivalent to handwritten signatures and stamped seals. Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects, but properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type. Digital signature schemes, in the sense used here, are cryptographically based, and must be implemented properly to be effective. Digital signatures can also provide non-repudiation, meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message, while also claiming their private key remains secret; further, some non-repudiation schemes offer a time stamp for the digital signature, so that even if the private key is exposed, the signature is valid. Digitally signed messages may be anything representable as a bitstring: examples include electronic mail, contracts, or a message sent via some other cryptographic protocol.
Views: 1860 The Audiopedia
In this 5 minutes, you are going to know pretty much all about Crypto Currencies and Bitcoins. What are Bitcoins? How do they work? Their Past to their future, everything! ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TIMESTAMPS:- Introduction To Bitcoins: 00:45 Definition Of Crypto Currencies: 01:23 Working & Difference With Other Currencies: 01:43 Security Aspect Of Bitcoins: 03:04 Making Of Bitcoins: 03:22 Protocols By Satoshi Naka Moto: 04:03 Value Of Bitcoins: 04:31 Conclusion: 05:08 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Links:- The article related to Cryptocurrencies & Bitcoins: https://suggestmetech.wordpress.com/2018/02/11/all-about-crypto-currencies-bitcoins/ Controlled Supply: https://goo.gl/eXjChS Detailed Article About Bitcoin Mining: https://goo.gl/JJNX1Q ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Credits:- Script: Souvik Ganguly Editing: Souvik Ganguly Voice: Souvik Ganguly Subtitles: Sourodip Bose Music: 1) Finding the Balance by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100708 Artist: http://incompetech.com/ 2) Home Base Groove by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1100563 Artist: http://incompetech.com/ 3) Pooka- Kevin MacLeod Source: Youtube Audio Library Video Clippings: Pixabay [ Link: https://pixabay.com/ ] ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Reach Us on :- Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/smtlovers/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/suggestmetech S.M.T Web Page:- https://suggestmetech.wordpress.com/ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- THANKS FOR WATCHING ----------------------------------------
Views: 190 Suggest Me Tech
Thinking about purchasing a Ledger Nano Hardware Wallet? Browse their official website: https://www.ledgerwallet.com/r/67ef Want to join coinbase to begin your crypto journey? Here’s a link to get free $10: https://www.coinbase.com/join/558828dc34383271a500003b Step up your game and Check Out Binance too: https://www.binance.com/?ref=10080191 Join the Robinhood app and invite your friends to Robinhood and win free stock. Here's my invite: http://share.robinhood.com/heidic1 Find me on Steemit: www.steemit.com/@heiditravels Twitter: @blockchainchick Instagram: @hheidiann If you’re looking for an app that tracks the price of BTC & ETH and many other coins, check out the CoinView App: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=br.com.freeflowt.coinview LINKS FOR ADDITIONAL READING FOR THIS VIDEO & ALL INFO IN TEXT DOWN BELOW “Hashcash a Denial of Service Counter-Measure” by Adam Back: http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf 5-Part Interview with Trace Mayer: https://www.weusecoins.com/adam-back-cypherpunks/ Join the Cypherpunks Email list: http://www.cypherspace.org/adam/cp.html As we continue our journey of learning about the individuals who were influential in the time leading up to the creation of Bitcoin, we have now come to learn about Dr. Adam Back. He is another one of those cypherpunks who developed systems that are now being used in the Bitcoin network. He was mentioned in the Bitcoin white paper and also the Tor white paper for the work he did on a similar, prior network called Freedom Network. Dr. Back contributed a big one for Bitcoin, hashcash. If that name doesn’t ring a bell, I bet proof-of-work does, in fact, Satoshi Nakamoto gave him credit for his contributions in the Bitcoin white paper. Dr. Back developed hashcash back in 1997, about 11 years before bitcoin. It was initially used to prevent email spam. The hashcash system for email use would create stamps that would be attached to emails and establish a micropayment type of system which would help to deter spam. I will be going into greater detail about hashcash, defining what a hash is and how proof-of-work actually works in my next video so if that’s something you’ve been curious to learn more about be sure to hit subscribe and click on that bell thing to get notified when that video comes out in the next couple days. In the meantime, there is a really interesting 5-part interview series that Trace Mayer hosted with Dr. Back I’ll include links down below so you can check them out for yourself, but in it he describes his time spent in college and how it was around the time that PGP, or “Pretty Good Privacy” had been released by Phil Zimmerman. This is was when the cypherpunks really started to kick things into gear. The realization that they can bring about social change in a much more direct way must have been a powerful moment. As Dr. Back explains in this interview, the Constitution was written to protect many rights, the first of which is the freedom of speech. Back in the day, the modes for speaking and communicating with one another were much more intimate, and perhaps easier to protect in this way. Now, in this new era of technology, speech and communication is more commonly done in a remote way. This in turn requires new methods of protecting our freedom. Dr. Back recalls how many different countries were attempting to control or even prohibit the use of encryption by individuals. Which of course is a great way to ensure your ability to speak freely across these new types of channels of communication. The old way of doing things, the political way, means you lobby to those in power and hope that you’ve paid enough to satisfy them. You hope that the political system will work in your favor. The cypherpunks way removed all of that B.S. They write code. They don’t ask for permission, they release it to the public and let society realize that there are human rights that need to be protected. In this way there is at least a chance for real social change. He says, “…what ultimately changes the game is the deployment of technology.” And boy do they ever deploy technology. The amount of work and collaboration that had taken place, and still takes place on these anonymous email lists is enough to renew your hope for the future. Again, this interview series is a great way to get a better feel for what it was like in the early days with these innovators like Dr. Adam Back, Wei Dai, Satoshi Nakamoto, Hal Finney, Nick Szabo and a number of others.
Views: 2162 Crypto Tips
A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency) is digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets. Cryptocurrency is a kind of digital currency, virtual currency or alternative currency. Cryptocurrencies use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems.The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain, that serves as a public financial transaction database. Bitcoin, first released as open-source software in 2009, is generally considered the first decentralized cryptocurrency.Since then, over 4,000 altcoin (alternative coin) variants of bitcoin have been created. According to Jan Lansky, a cryptocurrency is a system that meets six conditions: The system does not require a central authority, distributed achieve consensus on its state [sic]. The system keeps an overview of cryptocurrency units and their ownership. The system defines whether new cryptocurrency units can be created. If new cryptocurrency units can be created, the system defines the circumstances of their origin and how to determine the ownership of these new units. Ownership of cryptocurrency units can be proved exclusively cryptographically. The system allows transactions to be performed in which ownership of the cryptographic units is changed. A transaction statement can only be issued by an entity proving the current ownership of these units. If two different instructions for changing the ownership of the same cryptographic units are simultaneously entered, the system performs at most one of them. Altcoin The term altcoin has various similar definitions. Stephanie Yang of The Wall Street Journal defined altcoins as "alternative digital currencies,"while Paul Vigna, also of The Wall Street Journal, described altcoins as alternative versions of bitcoin.Aaron Hankins of the MarketWatch refers to any cryptocurrency other than bitcoin as altcoins. Blockchain Main article: Blockchain The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain. A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography.Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block,a timestamp and transaction data. By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way".For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain. It solves the double spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. The block time is the average time it takes for the network to generate one extra block in the blockchain.Some blockchains create a new block as frequently as every five seconds.By the time of block completion, the included data becomes verifiable. This is practically when the money transaction takes place, so a shorter block time means faster transactions. Timestamping Cryptocurrencies use various timestamping schemes to avoid the need for a trusted third party to timestamp transactions added to the blockchain ledger. Proof-of-work schemes The first timestamping scheme invented was the proof-of-work scheme. The most widely used proof-of-work schemes are based on SHA-256 and scrypt. The latter now dominates over the world of cryptocurrencies, with at least 480 confirmed implementations.
Views: 22 G-QUBE Tweak
Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0401 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/sy0401cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - The CHAP and PAP authentication protocols have been a mainstay of network computing. In this video, you’ll learn how PAP and CHAP operates over the network and some of the advantages and disadvantages of using these protocols for authentication. - - - - - Download entire video course: http://professormesser.link/401adyt Get the course on MP3 audio: http://professormesser.link/401vdyt Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 35509 Professor Messer
Compare Discretionary, Role-based and Mandatory Access Control. Course material via: http://sandilands.info/sgordon/teaching
Views: 10603 Steven Gordon
FCoin, a digital assets trading platform, has gained investments from top-notch investment institutions including Danhua Capital, Node Capital, Singer Capital, Timestamp Capital, 8 Decimal Capital, Zipper Fund and other investors. FCoin was founded by Zhang Jian, former Huobi CTO and author of the book "Blockchain: Defining The Future Finance and Economic Landscape". “We are delighted to receive investments from such trusted partners and look forward to progressing our plans to become a leading player in the crypto currency trading market,” Zhang Jian said. Subscribe: https://goo.gl/sjhvFp
Views: 98 24h Crypto Coin News
Clickbait title. Just a bit of brain food. Games, licenses and many other things depend on a good time source. But where does the time come from and should you trust it? -=[ 🔴 Stuff I use ]=- → Microphone:* https://amzn.to/2LW6ldx → Graphics tablet:* https://amzn.to/2C8djYj → Camera#1 for streaming:* https://amzn.to/2SJ66VM → Lens for streaming:* https://amzn.to/2CdG31I → Connect Camera#1 to PC:* https://amzn.to/2VDRhWj → Camera#2 for electronics:* https://amzn.to/2LWxehv → Lens for macro shots:* https://amzn.to/2C5tXrw → Keyboard:* https://amzn.to/2LZgCFD → Headphones:* https://amzn.to/2M2KhxW -=[ ❤️ Support ]=- → per Video: https://www.patreon.com/join/liveoverflow → per Month: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UClcE-kVhqyiHCcjYwcpfj9w/join -=[ 🐕 Social ]=- → Twitter: https://twitter.com/LiveOverflow/ → Website: https://liveoverflow.com/ → Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/LiveOverflow/ → Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/LiveOverflow/ -=[ 📄 P.S. ]=- All links with "*" are affiliate links. LiveOverflow / Security Flag GmbH is part of the Amazon Affiliate Partner Programm.
Views: 183036 LiveOverflow
Google Tech Talks August 3, 2007 ABSTRACT Byzantine Agreement is a fundamental problem in distributed computing, that is--design a protocol to bring processors to agreementon a bit despite a fraction of bad processors behaving to disrupt the outcome. First proposed in 1980, it was proved impossible to solve deterministically which launched some of the early work on randomized algorithms. As the only (randomized) solutions for synchronous and asynchronous environments were resp., nearly linear time or exponential time, or required assumptions of private channels, this spurred the field of cryptography to develop concepts like multiparty secure computation. We have designed a distributed...
Views: 11392 GoogleTechTalks
SegWit is a solution to increase the scalability of blockchain and has already been successfully implemented on Litecoin and Bitcoin. Currently, every block not only record every transaction details, it also includes details such as the timestamp, Bitcoins transferred, or the transaction’s digital signature, to verify the legitimacy of each transaction. Digital signatures are required for verification when miners process transactions, before adding the transaction to the block. However, to the regular user, he is only concerned with how much assets he has in his accounts, not verifying every transaction. Segwit removes the digital signature information within a block, allowing each block to hold more transactions, achieving the goal of scalability. Huobi Global Exchange: https://www.huobi.com Follow us on: Blog: https://blog.huobi.com/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/huobiglobalofficial Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/huobiglobalofficial Medium: https://medium.com/@huobiglobal Telegram: https://t.me/huobiglobalofficial Twitter: https://twitter.com/HuobiGlobal Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/HuobiGlobal/ Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/HuobiGlobal
Views: 355 Huobi Global
Yehuda Lindell, Eli Oxman, and Benny Pinkas Dept. of Computer Science, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel Abstract. In recent work, Ishai, Prabhakaran and Sahai (CRYPTO 2008) presented a new compiler (hereafter the IPS compiler) for constructing protocols that are secure in the presence of malicious adversaries without an honest majority, from protocols that are only secure in the presence of semi-honest adversaries. The IPS compiler has many important properties: it provides a radically different way of obtaining security in the presence of malicious adversaries with no honest majority, it is black-box in the underlying semi-honest protocol, and it has excellent asymptotic efficiency. In this paper, we study the IPS compiler from a number of different angles. We present an efficiency improvement of the "watchlist setup phase" of the compiler that also facilitates a simpler and tighter analysis of the cheating probability. In addition, we present a conceptually simpler variant that uses protocols that are secure in the presence of covert adversaries as its basic building block. This variant can be used to achieve more efficient asymptotic security, as we show regarding black-box constructions of malicious oblivious transfer from semi-honest oblivious transfer. Finally, we analyze the IPS compiler from a concrete efficiency perspective and demonstrate that in some cases it can be competitive with the best efficient protocols currently known.
Views: 299 TheIACR
A blockchain, originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data . By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way". For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires consensus of the network majority. Although blockchain records are not unalterable, blockchains may be considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:02:00 History 00:05:08 Structure 00:06:24 Blocks 00:08:13 Block time 00:08:48 Decentralization 00:10:33 Openness 00:11:56 Permissionless 00:13:07 Permissioned (private) blockchain 00:13:46 Disadvantages of private blockchain 00:14:59 Uses 00:15:33 Smart contracts 00:16:06 Banks ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blockchain
Views: 4 WikiVidi Documentaries
What is CRYPTO PHONE? What does CRYPTO PHONE mean? CRYPTO PHONE meaning - CRYPTO PHONE definition - CRYPTO PHONE explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Crypto phones are mobile telephones that provide security against eavesdropping and electronic surveillance. The interception of telecommunications has become a major industry. Most of the world's intelligence agencies and many private organisations intercept telephone communications to obtain military, economic and political information. The price of simple mobile phone surveillance devices has become so low that many individuals can afford to use them. Advances in technology have made it difficult to determine who is intercepting and recording private communications. Crypto phones can protect calls from interception by using algorithms to encrypt the signals. The phones have a cryptographic chip that handles encryption and decryption. Two algorithms are programmed into the chip: A key-exchange algorithm for the key agreement protocol and a symmetric-key algorithm for voice encryption. For the system to work, both users must have crypto phones logged into crypto mode. As with other phones, the signal is encrypted by GSM but it is also encrypted by the cryptographic chip. When the IMSI-catcher performs a man-in-the-middle attack and disables the GSM encryption, the crypto phone encryption remains intact. Therefore, while the signal is still being intercepted, it can no longer be decoded and fake SMS messages can't be sent as the IMSI-catcher does not have the correct code. At the beginning of the call, both users get the same session key by using the hash function. Then the session key becomes a confirm code. The confirm code could be 3 letters or 4 numbers, depending on the phone's manufacturer. In the crypto mode, the user reads the confirm code over the encrypted line to his communication partner and verifies the confirm code his partner reads back. If there is a discrepancy in the confirm code, a man-in-the-middle attack has been detected. The "session code" that has been established is used only for that specific call. At termination, all the parameters are wiped from memory, and there is no way to reconstruct the code. Intercepted and stored encrypted material can be kept for later analysis, but there is no way to break the code except, possibly, by the time consuming trial-and-error method.
Views: 750 The Audiopedia
#RecoverablevsIrrecoverable#DBMS#freeEducationGATE Difference between recoverable and irrecoverable schedules with example. Imp for GATE, UGC NET and other competitive exams.
Views: 7980 Gate Smashers
Preethi Kasireddy, Founder and CEO of TruStory, explains TruStory’s mission and hosts a study session reviewing Bitcoin’s White Paper. Join the TruStory Expert Community today https://boards.greenhouse.io/trustory... Part 1: TruStory's Mission TruStory’s Mission [2:18] How a story works in TruStory [3:36] Examples of stories not suited for TruStory [5:09] What makes a story valid on TruStory’s platform [7:25] Fundamental goals of the Experts Program [8:06] Part 2: Bitcoin White Paper Review Nonreversible transactions [11:12] Definition of an electronic coins; process of transactions explained [13:39] What are nodes? [16:39] What’s the purpose of timestamps? [16:52] How the Proof of Work puzzle works [18:16] What are the odds that two nodes broadcasting different versions of the next block simultaneously?[22:33] How much would a 51% attack cost? [27:47] What happens when there are no more block rewards? [29:32] The usefulness of Merkle trees [35:23] Block header calculation [36:52] How is blockchain a specific instance of a distributed ledger? [39:05] Should you generate new address for your private key for every transaction [43:00] Why the probability of an an attacker attacking the bitcoin system is negligible [45:13] Combining and splitting value [47:50] Sybil resistance explained [50:28] _______________________________________________________________________ For more study sessions with TruStory, check out these links: Distributed Systems and Consensus: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WndYl3wUzYM Critiquing Stories and Evidence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9iiRR9FqrJo&t=828s Connect with us: If you have questions, post em to our Discourse: https://discourse.trustory.io/ If you find false claims, @ us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/isTrustory If you wanna get updates on TruStory, check out our website: https://www.trustory.io/
Views: 436 Experts @ TruStory
Keywords/phrases: The hype around "blockchain" is out of sync with the actual implementations. There is one exception: Bitcoin (maybe two, Ethereum). The hype stems from the general economic conditions of free money, stimulus, and low-interest rates. We have a lot of money chasing very little yield where people chase investment exuberances. The blockchains worth the hype are the ones setting the stage for real-world applications. Open, transnational, borderless, open access, permissionless blockchains. There is a lot of hype but there is also a seven-year experiment that refuses to die.
Views: 1551 aantonop
Distributed Ledger Technology or Blockchain Continued- Distributed Ledger Technology called DLT or blockchain involves a distributed database maintained over a network of computers where information can be added by the network participants. Each added layer of information or data is referred to as a block. The network participants can share and retain identical cryptographically secured information and records. DLT uses either a public or private network. A public network is open and accessible to anyone that joins, without restrictions. All data stored on a public network is visible to anyone on the network, although it is encrypted. A public network has no central authority and relies solely on the network participants to verify transactions and record data on the network. Algorithm and computational technology is used to protect the integrity of the data. A private network is limited to individuals and entities that are granted access by a network operator. Access can be tiered with different entities being allowed differing levels of authority to transact and view data. In the financial services industry, it is likely that networks will be private. The transactions and data on the network usually represent an underlying asset that may be digital assets, such as cryptosecurities and cryptocurrencies, or a representation of a hard asset stored offline (a token representing an interest in a gold bar, for example). Assets on a DLT network are cryptographically secured using public and private key combinations. The public key combination allows access to the network itself, and the private key is for access to the asset itself and is held by the asset holder or its agent. A transaction may be initiated by any party on the network that holds assets on that network. When a transaction is initiated, it is verified using a predetermined process that can be either consensus-based or proof-of-work based, although new verification processes are being explored. In layman’s terms, the verification process is based on digital computations. The settlement of the transaction occurs when verification is completed. Currently this can occur immediately or take a few hours. Once verified, a transaction is “cryptographically hashed” and forms a permanent record on the DLT network. Records are time-stamped and displayed sequentially to all parties with network access. Currently, historical records cannot be edited or changed, though technology is being developed to change that.
Views: 100 LawCast with Laura Anthony, Esq.
For more information visit: http://bit.ly/28C3_information To download the video visit: http://bit.ly/28C3_videos Playlist 28C3: http://bit.ly/28C3_playlist Speaker: Peio Popov How the e-money systems can be made better The proposed talk provides a definition of the problem of creating e-money and after a review of the state of the art points out possible solutions and proposes questions for discussion for the properties of electronic money system. Electronic money: The road to Bitcoin and a glimpse ahead Abstract: The proposed talk provides a definition of the problem of creating e-money and after a review of the state of the art points out possible solutions and proposes questions for discussion for the properties of electronic money system. 1. What is electronic money and different means of currency Definition of electronic money and distinction from similar means of exchange. Electronic money is defined as monetary value which is: stored on an electronic device; issued on receipt of funds; and accepted as a means of payment by persons other than the issuer. Working e-money examples: PayPal and MoneyBookers Other means of exchange, similar to e-money: Alternative/Social/Timeshare/Community currencies; Loyalty and Voucher systems. Working examples: WIR and Ven currencies (Bitcoin) What makes them different from e-money? (convertible only one-way, not a legal tender, mostly backed by trust only, etc) Optional: Pros and cons of the abovementioned means of exchange. 2. Defining the e-money problem: What electronic money should do? Risks and requirements to the solution for electronic money from technical, legal and business standpoint. The basic human problem of reaching a consensus and trust in a group. General system risks: Credit Liability Credit Abuse Counterfeiting Unauthorized Withdrawal Purchase Order Modification Double Spending Failure to Credit Payment Denial of Service Repudiation Failure to deliver Framing Secrecy Legal and accounting: Dispute resolution Money laundering and finance of terrorism Tax evasion prevention Consumer protection requirements Ways to negotiate and conclude a contract Auditability Reverse and chargeback transactions How the burden of proof is distributed Business: Costs for: Registration Operation Support Marketing Customer and merchant negotiation Accent on the most important human problems: Identification and authorization (which is the required minimum?) Achieving consensus and easy dispute resolution in a group. Determine the state of the system at any given moment Trust (between the peer users or trust in the central authority) 3. How the risks and requirements have been traditionally addressed? Review of the cryptographic, legal and procedural methods from the existing e-money protocols. Еmphasis on anonymity and privacy problems. The review of the existing systems will be a distinction between: Online and offline systems Example: PayPal and Blind signature/PayWord based systems Centralized and decentralized systems Example: Liberty Reserve and Ripple/BitCoin Hard and Soft systems Example: BitCoin and Credit card based money and payment protocols How do they solve the problems of trust and consensus in a certain group? How they provide anonymous transactions and keep user privacy? Are independent jurisdictions a (contribution to) the solution? Calculated risk, insurance and responsibility/role delegation as patches to the existing problems. Which of the above systems may be deemed "legal"? (what do the central banks think) Optional: Few words for Blind signature and PayWord techniques and the protocols around them 4. The great step forward. The contribution of Bitcoin Emphasis on decentralization and (relative) anonymity features of Bitcoin. How the combination of a way to create(mint) coins and to timestamp the state of their distribtion created the first working non-centralised currency. What, in my opinion, contributed for the Bitcoin popularity. 5. The problems of Bitcoin What Bitcoin doesn't provide or doesn't provide in an effective manner: Cost of creating money Method of reaching a consensus, based on computing power No "real value" to back it Settlement risk not covered Scalability issues All the lacking features of a "soft" currency Is it decentralized or distributed system? (having in mind the introduction of "trust points") 6. A Glimpse forward How can anonymous e-money be made better (more effective and accessible). Proposal (and discussion) of the possible enchancements. How to issue e-money in more effective manner?
Views: 1069 Christiaan008
Recorded: 11/12/2014 CERIAS Security Seminar at Purdue University You can hack, but you can't hide: Using log analysis to detect APTs Kevin Bowers, RSA In my talk I will be describing new techniques developed at RSA Labs to analyze massive log data commonly collected by large enterprises to detect and identify suspicious activity. Unlike common signature-based detection mechanisms used today, our approach leverages behavior patterns that persist across different infection vectors, and is thus more resilient to attacker evasion. Moreover, our techniques are unique in their ability to detect stealthy campaigns in which only a single host sporadically communicates with malicious sites controlled by attackers. Through effective data reduction and algorithms inspired from the graph-theoretic belief propagation model we identify the most suspicious domains contacted by hosts in an organization in different stages of an APT campaign (e.g., initial delivery, infection, command-and-control, etc.). We demonstrate the effectiveness of our techniques against two datasets. The first, a public dataset made available by Los Alamos National Laboratory includes the simulations of APT campaigns overlaid on their DNS traffic. We successfully detect 94% of the campaigns with only a 1% false positive rate. We then apply the techniques to 38TB of web proxy logs collected by a large enterprise to discover hundreds of malicious domains that had bypassed other installed security tools. Kevin Bowers is a Senior Research Scientist and Manager of RSA Laboratories, the security research group at RSA, the Security Division of EMC. He holds a B.S. in Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering and Computer Science, and a B.S. in Mathematics, both from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, as well as an M.S. in Computer Science from Carnegie Mellon University. Kevin has been with RSA Labs since 2007 and his current research is focused on user authentication, breach resilience, and data science for security applications. Kevin�s publication history covers many diverse topics including numerous cryptographic protocols for remote verification of integrity and resilience, time stamping, secure chain-of-custody, as well as advanced authentication techniques and steganography. (Visit: www.cerias.purdue.edu)
Views: 201 ceriaspurdue
Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0501 Professor Messer’s Course Notes: http://professormesser.link/501cn Frequently Asked Questions: http://professormesser.link/faq - - - - - A security professional will need to use a large list of software tools. In this video, you’ll learn which tools can be a useful addition to your security toolbag. - - - - - Subscribe to get the latest videos: http://professormesser.link/yt Calendar of live events: http://www.professormesser.com/calendar/ FOLLOW PROFESSOR MESSER: Professor Messer official website: http://www.professormesser.com/ Twitter: http://www.professormesser.com/twitter Facebook: http://www.professormesser.com/facebook Instagram: http://www.professormesser.com/instagram Google +: http://www.professormesser.com/googleplus
Views: 45328 Professor Messer
This channel introduces the "e-Estonia" - a term commonly used to describe Estonia's emergence as one of the most advanced e-societies in the world. You can learn more about Estonian ICT and technology by watching the videos, visiting our homepage http://e-estonia.com or follow us on FB e-Estonia .You can also book a visit and live demo at Estonian ICT Demo Center in Tallinn and establish business contacts with Estonian ICT companies.
Views: 231116 e-estonia
Website link=https://goo.gl/oGfLM9 A cryptocurrency (or crypto currency ) is a controversial  digital asset designed to work as a medium of exchange that uses strong cryptography to secure financial transactions, control the creation of additional units, and verify the transfer of assets.  Cryptocurrency is a kind of digital currency , virtual currency or alternative currency . Cryptocurrencies use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems.  The decentralized control of each cryptocurrency works through distributed ledger technology, typically a blockchain , that serves as a public financial transaction database.  Bitcoin , first released as open-source software in 2009, is generally considered the first decentralized cryptocurrency.  Since then, over 4,000 altcoin ( alternative coin ) variants of bitcoin have been created.  Formal definition According to Jan Lansky, a cryptocurrency is a system that meets six conditions:  1. The system does not require a central authority, distributed achieve consensus on its state [ sic ]. 2. The system keeps an overview of cryptocurrency units and their ownership. 3. The system defines whether new cryptocurrency units can be created. If new cryptocurrency units can be created, the system defines the circumstances of their origin and how to determine the ownership of these new units. 4. Ownership of cryptocurrency units can be proved exclusively cryptographically . 5. The system allows transactions to be performed in which ownership of the cryptographic units is changed. A transaction statement can only be issued by an entity proving the current ownership of these units. 6. If two different instructions for changing the ownership of the same cryptographic units are simultaneously entered, the system performs at most one of them. In March 2018, the word " cryptocurrency " was added to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.  Overview Decentralized cryptocurrency is produced by the entire cryptocurrency system collectively, at a rate which is defined when the system is created and which is publicly known. In centralized banking and economic systems such as the Federal Reserve System , corporate boards or governments control the supply of currency by printing units of fiat money or demanding additions to digital banking ledgers. In case of decentralized cryptocurrency, companies or governments cannot produce new units, and have not so far provided backing for other firms, banks or corporate entities which hold asset value measured in it. The underlying technical system upon which decentralized cryptocurrencies are based was created by the group or individual known as Satoshi Nakamoto.  As of May 2018, over 1,800 cryptocurrency specifications existed.  Within a cryptocurrency system, the safety, integrity and balance of ledgers is maintained by a community of mutually distrustful parties referred to as miners : who use their computers to help validate and timestamp transactions, adding them to the ledger in accordance with a particular timestamping scheme.  Most cryptocurrencies are designed to gradually decrease production of that currency, placing a cap on the total amount of that currency that will ever be in circulation.  Compared with ordinary currencies held by financial institutions or kept as cash on hand, cryptocurrencies can be more difficult for seizure by law enforcement.  This difficulty is derived from leveraging cryptographic technologies. Architecture Blockchain Main article: Blockchain The validity of each cryptocurrency's coins is provided by a blockchain . A blockchain is a continuously growing list of records , called blocks, which are linked and secured using cryptography .  Each block typically contains a hash pointer as a link to a previous block,  a timestamp and transaction data.  By design, blockchains are inherently resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way".  For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires collusion of the network majority. Blockchains are secure by design and are an example of a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance . Decentralized consensus has therefore been achieved with a blockchain.  It solves the double spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server . The block time is the average time it takes for the network to generate one extra block in the blockchain.  Some blockchains create a new block as frequently as every five seconds.  By the time of block com
Views: 24 7 Minutes Craft
https://www.bitbond.com Blockchain smart contracts tutorial Blockchain Smart Contracts explained - presented by Bitbond CEO Radoslav Albrecht at this years Tech Open Air Festival in Berlin. This event was hosted by The Place. Table of content: A Primer on Blockchain Technology @ 1:55 An introduction to Smart Contracts @ 12:50 Use cases of Smart Contracts @ 26:43 Q&A @ 43:54 A Primer on Blockchain Technology @ 1:55 The concept of Blockchain was first discussed in Satoshi Nakomoto’s whitepaper called, Bitcoin: A Peer to Peer Electronic Cash System. In this whitepaper Nakomoto discusses the need for a cryptographically secured form of digital cash. Up until then, all forms of digital money had faltered due to the ‘double spend’ problem. This described how all digital assets could be infinitely copied and are therefore rendered worthless. By creating the Blockchain, Nakomoto solved this problem. Blockchain in its simplest form, is a record of transactions sorted into blocks. These transactions are time-stamped within the blocks which are each immutably linked to the preceding block. By creating this link, the blocks are made tamper-proof, as changing one transaction in one of the blocks would require all preceding blocks to be changed as well. The Blockchain therefore leverages the power of the internet to facilitate the exchange of value across borders. Companies like Bitbond use this to facilitate both international fixed income investments (https://www.bitbond.com/fixed-income-investments), and small business loans (https://www.bitbond.com/small-business-loans). What are Smart Contracts? 12:50 Smart Contracts are “If this, then that” statements written into the blockchain. They allow for the exchange of money, properties, shares and anything else of value, without the use of an intermediary. Perhaps the easiest way to understand the function of a Smart Contract, is to compare it to the way a vending machine works. If you choose an item from the vending machine for example and input money, then the item falls into the grate and becomes available to you. It does not become available to you until you input the money, which in this case, is the event that triggers the action (the item falling into the grate). Similarly, a Smart Contract is an immutable agreement between two parties to trigger a certain action at a predefined event. If for example, you paid into a disaster relief fund designed to help those affected by earthquakes, you could create a Smart Contract which pays out the money when a certain predefined level of tectonic movement is measured which is indicative of an earthquake. This has several important advantages, chief among them being the removal of intermediaries and the automation of processes which otherwise may be expensive or open to fraud. As a result, individuals can take further control of their assets through the Blockchain. How do Smart Contracts work? Smart Contracts currently work primarily on the Ethereum Blockchain. In fact, founder Vitalik Buterin, wrote the Ethereum Blockchain in a programming language called Solidity which is explicitly designed for Smart Contracts. In this video, we provide the outlines of a Smart Contract tutorial to help you get started with the technology. Specifically, Smart Contracts work in three steps: 1. Two parties agree on terms 2. A predefined event occurs 3. The event triggers and action (payout) With these three steps in mind, it becomes that smart contracts not only define the rules of an agreement in the same way that a traditional contract does, but also automatically enforces those obligations through the execution of code. How can I use a Smart Contract? 21:10 In this presentation, Radoslav Albrecht provides a detailed explanation of not only what a Smart Contract is, but also how a layperson may set one up on his own. Specifically, he mentions three browser plugins: 1. Parity 2. Metamask 3. Mist These three plugins are probably the easiest way for people, who may not be developers, to interact with, and learn about Smart Contracts on the Blockchain. To set up your own Smart Contract, you can visit dealmate.io. This website is a relatively light-weight solution which will let you set up your first basic Smart Contract for free and without the need for code. Simply enter your desired parameters and have dealmate generate the code for you. You will need the Metamask plugin to use dealmate. Developers can also create Smart Contracts on the Ethereum Blockchain directly by learning a programming language called Solidity. ----------------------- Relevant links: https://www.bitbond.com https://toa.berlin/ http://theplaceberlin.com/ https://parity.io/ https://metamask.io/ https://github.com/ethereum/mist https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solidity https://ethereumbuilders.gitbooks.io/guide/content/en/solidity_tutorials.html http://dealmate.io/
Views: 1143 Bitbond
Thanks to the advice of Mario Pazos, industry expert and founder of Security Token Partners, this is going to be one of the most important videos on security tokens and the future of the crypto markets that you'll ever watch. Here are clickable time stamps to important sections of the interview: Roadmap to Mario Pazos -- 1:02 Do you only invest in ICOs or also post-launch token projects? -- 5:25 How security tokens will affect institutional/retail traders & exchanges -- 9:47 One of Mario's standout projects -- 13:11 Potential issues with security tokens and the SEC -- 21:19 Final comments -- 26:22 During our last video, I touched upon the importance of security tokens. Mario Pazos has become a commanding figure in the security token space, helping blockchain companies like Kairos structure both security and utility token offerings. Here are some of the questions and answers from the interview: How did you end up here? On November 2016, he became an angel investor and his initial participation was in the cannabis industry. This allowed him [via an equity investment] to get involved with a company that was trying to solve the traditional payment problem cannabis companies face using block chain technology. That company was Metal, and eventually Mario was also granted tokens as a result (token symbol: MTL). After that, he started managing a small angel investment fund of about $150,000, which eventually grew to close to $5 million. Do you strictly invest in ICOs or do you also buy tokens post-launch for projects you believe in? Pazos investment strategy was initially focused on Dapps and is now focused on protocols. Nevertheless, he still invests in both ICOs and existing industry-disruptive projects. Mario is a strong believer in security tokens disrupting the capital markets, because for a first time in history we're going to be able to have private equity markets liquid [on a funny note highlighting the crypto market's need for liquidity, I mentioned my experience as a day trader when I moved the market on PACcoin with just a $5,000 order!]. What are your thoughts on how security tokens will not just affect institutional traders, but also the exchanges and the retail market? Mario Pazos believes that we're currently experiencing “Wall Street 2.0” and that there are three principal changes that will make it happen: 1) A new set of investors (new institutional money coming in), 2) new set of projects (both blockchain and non-blockchain related), and 3) new crypto exchanges and sources of liquidity (the real game changer in the space). Which was one of your standout projects, what drew you in on it, and what was your thought process? Mario's moment of awakening took place 8-9 months ago when he read an article from Spice VC's founder Carlos Domingo on how tokenizing VC funds would disrupt the venture capitalist market forever. That allowed him to leverage off Spice VC to bring his first major security token deal involving facial recognition firm Kairos to market, which is raising $30 million with over $1.5 billion in reservations. Kairos actually was one of the first dual-token offerings in the world, with both a security token and a utility token. Do you see any issues with security tokens and the SEC? Mario acknowledges that it's very difficult to navigate the compliance waters in the crypto token space, but when it comes to security tokens, you can currently use the exemptions under the JOBS Act of 2012 to issue the securities. Nevertheless, it's difficult to know if the SEC will create a new framework for the asset class going forward or be extremely restrictive and not allow US investors to participate in the crypto market. Nevertheless, regardless of the direction the SEC goes, there will definitely be a shift towards security tokens. Any final comments or projects that you're excited about that you may want to wrap up with? Mario Pazos expressed the importance of being very selective when working with companies in the security token space, since they are in this market for the long term and want to see the market flourish and develop in the right direction. Focusing on the get-rich-quick mentality of 2017 is a mistake and investors need to look at what's ahead and focus on that instead. What do you think of the security token space in 2018 and what the position that the SEC takes will be? Comment below. If you have any questions for Mario Pazos, make sure to list them as well. Use Some of These Links to Help you Get Started: Open an Account and Start Trading Cryptos on Binance: https://goo.gl/8GYe82 Protect Your Cryptos with a Trezor Wallet: https://goo.gl/XtrCJv Access the Pro Version of the Tradingview Platform: https://goo.gl/5E3j6h Our Trading Analysis on Tradingview: https://www.tradingview.com/u/cryptoplayhouse/ Follow us on Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/cryptoplayhouse/ Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/cryptoplayhouse/
Views: 485 Crypto Playhouse
Explained What is Blockchain technology, how it solves the Money Transfer Problem as well as Double Spending Problem. It also covers principal of Distributed Ledger Technology and Proof of Work(51% honest node). It also has one blockchain example in detail. Blockchain technology works on Distributed Ledger Technology. Blockchain formation. The main chain (black) consists of the longest series of blocks from the genesis block (green) to the current block. Orphan blocks (purple) exist outside of the main chain. Bitcoin network data A blockchain,originally block chain, is a growing list of records, called blocks, which are linked using cryptography. Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a merkle tree root hash). By design, a blockchain is resistant to modification of the data. It is "an open, distributed ledger that can record transactions between two parties efficiently and in a verifiable and permanent way". For use as a distributed ledger, a blockchain is typically managed by a peer-to-peer network collectively adhering to a protocol for inter-node communication and validating new blocks. Once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without alteration of all subsequent blocks, which requires consensus of the network majority. Although blockchain records are not unalterable, blockchains may be considered secure by design and exemplify a distributed computing system with high Byzantine fault tolerance. Decentralized consensus has therefore been claimed with a blockchain. Blockchain was invented by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008 to serve as the public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency bitcoin. The invention of the blockchain for bitcoin made it the first digital currency to solve the double-spending problem without the need of a trusted authority or central server. The bitcoin design has inspired other applications, and blockchains which are readable by the public are widely used by cryptocurrencies. Private blockchains have been proposed for business use. Sources such as the Computerworld called the marketing of such blockchains without a proper security model "snake oil".
Views: 36 Kavya Academy
Bitcoin What is Bitcoin,How to Bitcoin, etymology, history, desing, ownership Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency and worldwide payment system. It is the first decentralized digital currency, as the system works without a central bank or single administrator. The network is peer-to-peer and transactions take place between users directly through the use of cryptography, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called a blockchain. Bitcoin was invented by an unknown person or group of people under the name Satoshi Nakamoto and released as open-source software in 2009. Bitcoins are created as a reward for a process known as mining. They can be exchanged for other currencies, products, and services. As of February 2015, over 100,000 merchants and vendors accepted bitcoin as payment. Research produced by the University of Cambridge estimates that in 2017, there are 2.9 to 5.8 million unique users using a cryptocurrency wallet, most of them using bitcoin. Etymology The word bitcoin first occurred and was defined in the white paper that was published on 31 October 2008. It is a compound of the words bit and coin. The white paper frequently uses the shorter coin. There is no uniform convention for bitcoin capitalization. Some sources use Bitcoin, capitalized, to refer to the technology and network and bitcoin, lowercase, to refer to the unit of account. Units The unit of account of the bitcoin system is bitcoin. As of 2014, tickers used to represent bitcoin are BTC and XBT. Its Unicode character is Small amounts of bitcoin used as alternative units are millibitcoin (mBTC) and satoshi. Named in homage to bitcoin's creator, a satoshi is the smallest amount within bitcoin representing 0.00000001 bitcoin, one hundred millionth of a bitcoin. A millibitcoin equals 0.001 bitcoin, one thousandth of a bitcoin or 100,000 satoshis. History Main article: History of bitcoin On 18 August 2008, the domain name "bitcoin.org" was registered. In November that year, a link to a paper authored by Satoshi Nakamoto titled Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System was posted to a cryptography mailing list. Nakamoto implemented the bitcoin software as open source code and released it in January 2009. The identity of Nakamoto remains unknown. In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence after Satoshi Nakamoto mined the first ever block on the chain, known as the genesis block, for a reward of 50 bitcoins. Embedded in the coinbase of this block was the following text: The Times 03/Jan/2009 Chancellor on brink of second bailout for banks. This note has been interpreted as both a timestamp of the genesis date and a derisive comment on the instability caused by fractional-reserve banking. One of the first supporters, adopters, and contributors to bitcoin was the receiver of the first bitcoin transaction, programmer Hal Finney. Finney downloaded the bitcoin software the day it was released, and received 10 bitcoins from Nakamoto in the world's first bitcoin transaction. Other early supporters were Wei Dai, creator of bitcoin predecessor b-money, and Nick Szabo, creator of bitcoin predecessor bit gold. In the early days, Nakamoto is estimated to have mined 1 million bitcoins. In 2010, Nakamoto handed the network alert key and control of the Bitcoin Core code repository over to Gavin Andresen, who later became lead developer at the Bitcoin Foundation. Nakamoto subsequently disappeared from any involvement in bitcoin. Andresen stated he then sought to decentralize control, saying: "As soon as Satoshi stepped back and threw the project onto my shoulders, one of the first things I did was try to decentralize that. So, if I get hit by a bus, it would be clear that the project would go on." This left opportunity for controversy to develop over the future development path of bitcoin. The value of the first bitcoin transactions were negotiated by individuals on the bitcointalk forums with one notable transaction of 10,000 BTC used to indirectly purchase two pizzas delivered by Papa John's. On 6 August 2010, a major vulnerability in the bitcoin protocol was spotted. Transactions were not properly verified before they were included in the blockchain, which let users bypass bitcoin's economic restrictions and create an indefinite number of bitcoins. bitcoin,what is bitcoin,how to bitcoin,bitcoin etymology,bitcoin history,bitcoin desing,bitcoin ownership,cryptocurrency,bitcoincash,bitcoin cash,b-money,Nick Szabo,peer-to-peer,Bitcoin mining,bitcoin.org,bit gold,bitcoin transaction,Electronic Cash System,cryptography mailing list,BTC,cryptocurrency wallet,bitcoin wallet,millibitcoin,digital currency,blockchain,Gavin Andresen,alert key,Hal Finney,Bitcoin Foundation,Bitcoin Core code,bit and coin
Views: 94 maximum personnel
Second part of Audio/Video Recording of Professor Raj Jain's class lecture on Wireless Network Security. It covers Wi-Fi Operation, IEEE 802.11 Architecture, IEEE 802.11 Services, Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP), WEP Review, WEP Problems, 802.11i Wireless LAN Security, 802.11i Phases of Operation, IEEE 802.11i Discovery Phase, 802.1X, 802.1X Authentication, 802.11i Key Hierarchy, Key Management, 802.11i Protected Data Transfer Phase, IEEE 802.11i Pseudo-Random Function, Security Problems Addressed, Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), WAP Infrastructure, Wireless Markup Language, WAP Architecture, WAP Application Environment (WAE), WAP Protocol Architecture, Wireless Transport Layer Security (WTLS), WTLS Protocol Architecture, WAP2 End-to-End Security over IP
Views: 1920 Raj Jain
Hello Guys, in this video I am gonna show u what is DNS Spoofing... I have covered the definition along with Practical. 02:49 -Time Stamp of Practical. Link to My Blog:- http://techdjdey.blogspot.in/ My Facebook Page:- https://www.facebook.com/Dhrubajyoti-dey-593780087403430/ Follow me on Twitter:- https://twitter.com/dhrubadey222 Video Editor used:- HitFilm 4 Express. https://hitfilm.com/ Screen Recorder used:- iSpring Free Cam 8. https://www.ispringsolutions.com/ispring-free-cam Music:- Elektronomia-Sky High. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TW9d8vYrVFQ PLEASE LIKE AND SHARE THIS VIDEO. SUBSCRIBE to my Channel here:- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFKcqq9IOdwHdgfq6GEL8gw?sub_confirmation=1 My other videos:- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCFKcqq9IOdwHdgfq6GEL8gw/videos IGNORE THESE BELOW: what is dns spoofing, what is dns spoofing attack
Views: 564 Dhrubajyoti Dey