Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption.
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Encryption Types
Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption.
Symmetric Key
Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data.
Public Key Encryption
This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work.
Combing The Two
There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time.
The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access.
References
"Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k...
"Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption

Views: 480862
itfreetraining

How does public-key cryptography work? What is a private key and a public key? Why is asymmetric encryption different from symmetric encryption? I'll explain all of these in plain English!
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Simply Explained - Savjee

In private key encryption, data is encrypted using a single same key that only the sender and the receiver know. That is why private key encryption is also called symmetric key encryption because the same key is used during both encryption and decryption of the transmitted data.
In this video, I will also use an example to demonstrate the process of using private key encryption. Two different methods -stream encryption and block encryption- of private key algorithm are also depicted with animation.
Playlist: Basic Cryptography
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vk3py9M2IfE&list=PLSNNzog5eyduN6o4e6AKFHekbH5-37BdV
Advanced Cryptography:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmA2QWSLSPg&list=PLSNNzog5eydtwsdT__t5WtRgvpfMzpTc7
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Views: 24461
Sunny Classroom

In public key encryption, two different keys are used to encrypt and decrypt data.One is the public key and other is the private key. These two keys are mathematically related. They come as a pairs.
The public key encryption is also called asymmetric key encryption because two different keys are used.
Public key algorithm is used for different purpose from private key algorithm. It is used for verification and authentication.
In this video, I will use an example to demonstrate how to use public key.
Playlist: Basic Cryptography
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vk3py9M2IfE&list=PLSNNzog5eyduN6o4e6AKFHekbH5-37BdV
Advanced Cryptography:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TmA2QWSLSPg&list=PLSNNzog5eydtwsdT__t5WtRgvpfMzpTc7
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Views: 34172
Sunny Classroom

This is the second in a series about cryptography; an extremely important aspect of computer science and cyber security. It covers a substitution cipher called the keyword cipher, also known as the Vigenère cipher. It explains how a keyword, or key phrase, can be used to effectively generate several different substitution keys for the same plain text message. The video includes a few examples you can try to encrypt and decrypt yourself using different encryption keys. It also describes how cipher text can be transformed again, with a second keyword, to improve the strength of encryption.

Views: 197
Computer Science

https://8gwifi.org/CipherFunctions.jsp
Reference book: http://leanpub.com/crypto
Cryptographic Algorithms generally fall into one of two different categories, or are a combination of both.
Symmetric
Fast
Only provide confidentiality
Examples: DES, AES, Blowfish, RC4, RC5
Asymmetric
Large mathematical operations make it slower than symmetric algorithms
No need for out of band key distribution (public keys are public!)
Scales better since only a single key pair needed per individual
Can provide authentication and nonrepudiation
Examples: RSA, El Gamal, ECC, Diffie-Hellman
problem with symmetric key cryptography
DES (Data Encryption Standard)
64 bit key that is effectively 56 bits in strength
Actual algorithm is called DEA (Data Encryption Algorithm)
DES Modes
Electronic Code Book
Cipher Block Chaining (most commonly used for general purpose encryption)
Cipher Feedback
Output Feedback
Counter Mode (used in IPSec)
3DES
112-bit effective key length
Uses either 2 or 3 different smaller keys in one of several modes
Modes
EEE2/3
EDE2/3
AES
NIST replaced DES in 1997 with this
Uses the Rijndael algorithm
Supports key/block sizes of 128, 192, and 256 bits
Uses 10/12/14 rounds as block size increases
IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm)
Operates on 64 bit blocks in 8 rounds with 128 bit key
Considered stronger than DES and is used in PGP
Blowfish
64 bit block cipher with up to 448 bit key and 16 rounds
Designed by Bruce Schneier
RC4
Stream cipher with variable key size created by Ron Rivest
RC5
Another Rivest cipher
Block cipher with 32/64/128 bit blocks and keys up to 2048 bits
RC6
Beefier version of RC5 submitted as AES candidate
CAST
64 bit block cipher with keys between 40-128 bits with 12-16 rounds depending on key length
CAST-256 used 128-bit blocks and keys from 128-256 bits using 48 rounds
SAFER (Secure and Fast Encryption Routine)
Set of patent-free algorithms in 64 and 128 bit block variants
Variation used in Bluetooth
Twofish
Adapted version of Blowfish with 128 bit blocks, 128-256 bit keys and 16 rounds
AES Finalist
Kryptografie mit symmetrischem Schlüssel
symmetric key cryptography
symmetric key cryptography tutorial
symmetric key cryptography example
symmetric key cryptography vs asymmetric key cryptography
symmetric and asymmetric key cryptography
symmetric key cryptography
Kryptografie mit symmetrischem Schlüssel
Kryptographie mit symmetrischem Schlüssel
Kryptographie mit symmetrischem Schlüssel
Kryptografie mit symmetrischem Schlüssel und asymmetrische Schlüsselkryptographie
symmetrische und asymmetrische Schlüsselkryptographie
Kryptografie mit symmetrischem Schlüssel

Views: 41475
Zariga Tongy

Get Full Course: http://www.engineeringmentor.com/CNYTv3
Networks #3: This tutorial introduces the Cryptography basics. It also explains what is Encryption and Decryption.
a) Cryptography basics (00:21):http://youtu.be/BEb_AnPWPwY?t=21s
how do we provide this security during transmission? Well, One way of ensuring security can be use of CRYPTOGRAPHY!
Cryptography is a field of network security
which deals with hiding "real" infromation
when it is under transmission between the two parties.
Usually, the real information is transformed
or hidden into another message and transmitted over the network.
This transformed message in itself will make no sense
even if any hacker gets hold of this information.
When it reaches the destination,
the receipent will know a method to de-transform
the garbage message into the original information
which the sender had sent.method of transforming message at sender's side
and de transforming at reciever's side forms the basic model of Cryptography.
b) Encryption and Decryption (3:57):http://youtu.be/BEb_AnPWPwY?t=3m57s
First, the information to be transmitted, called as plain text(or message)
is fed to an Encryption system.
The Encyrption system uses a key to convert the plain text to encyrpted form
which looks like garbage value.
This is also called as cipher text.
A corresponding key is used at the other end
to decrypt the cipher text back to original message.
When we say a key, it actually means a piece of string value
which is fed to encyprtion and decryption algorithms
along with the text for transformation.
When the message reaches the destination,
this system at the other end decrypts the cipher text into original message
with the help of the key.
This is called as Decryption System.
The output of the Decryption System is the intended message.
Depending on how the keys are shared,
we can classify crytography as symmetric and asymmetric.
If the keys used by both parties are same,
then it is called symmetric key cryptography, or private key cryptography.
If both parties use different keys for encyrption and decryption,
then it is called asymmetric key cryptography or public key cryptography.
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Views: 104995
Skill Gurukul

This is the third in a series about cryptography; an extremely important aspect of computer science and cyber security. It covers a transposition cipher called the rail fence cipher, also known as the zig zag cipher. It explains how this method can be used to scramble the letters in a plain text message to generate cipher text. It also explains how the rail fence cipher can be used with different keys. The video includes a examples you can try to encrypt and decrypt yourself.

Views: 290
Computer Science

Understand the working of Symmetric Key Cryptography and Asymmetric Key Cryptography in detail with working and difference between the 2 types.
Symmetric Key Cryptography(Private Key Cryptography) -
1. In symmetric-key cryptography, the same key is used by the sender (for encryption) and the receiver(for decryption).
2. The key is shared.
3. The key is Secret and kept Private between the Sender & Receiver
4. For N users in a network the number of keys required is - N(N-1)/2
Asymmetric Key Cryptography(Public Key Cryptography)
1. In asymmetric-key cryptography, 2 different keys are used. 1 for Encryption & 1 for Decryption.
2. Every communicating party needs just a key pair.
3. One of the two keys is called as Public Key and the other is the Private Key.
4. Private key remains as a secret. Public key is for the general public.
5. Only the corresponding public private key pair and encrypt and decrypt messages and no other key can be used.
6. For N users in a network the number of keys required is - N*2.
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#SymmetricKeyCryptography #AsymmetricKeyCryptography #NetworkSecurity #Cryptography

Views: 1188
Simple Snippets

In this network security video tutorial we will study the working of RSA Algorithm.
RSA Algorithm theory -
1. Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adlemen developed the method called as RSA algorithm.
2. Most popular and proven asymmetric key cryptography algorithm
3. Based on the mathematical fact that it is easy to find and multiply large prime numbers together, but it is extremely difficult to factor their product.
RSA Algorithm Steps -
1. Choose two large prime numbers P and Q.
2. Calculate N = P * Q
3. Select the public key (i.e. the encryption key) E such that it is not a factor of [(P – 1) * (Q – 1)].
4. Select the private key (i.e. the decryption key) D such that the following equation is true:
(D * E) mod (P – 1) * (Q – 1) = 1
5. For encryption calculate the cipher text CT from the plain text PT as follows: CT= PT^E mod N
6. Send CT as the cipher text to the receiver
7. For decryption calculate the plain text PT from the cipher text CT as follows: PT = CT^D mod N
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#RSA #RSAalgorithm #NetworkSecurity #AsymmetricCryptography

Views: 1294
Simple Snippets

Cryptography has a fascinating history going back thousands of years. However, until relatively recently all cryptographic algorithms fell into one category referred to as symmetric encryption. In symmetric encryption both the sender and receive share a single key that is used both to encrypt and decrypt messages. Encryption takes a plaintext message and produces a ciphertext. Decryption takes the ciphertext message and produces the originalplaintext. A variety of simple symmetric encryption algorithms exist. Symmetric encryption is still in wide use today, although computers have allowed the algorithms that are used to become significantly more complex and secure.
Credits: Talking: Geoffrey Challen (Assistant Professor, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo). Producing: Greg Bunyea (Undergraduate, Computer Science and Engineering, University at Buffalo).
Part of the https://www.internet-class.org online internet course. A blue Systems Research Group (https://blue.cse.buffalo.edu) production.

Views: 595
internet-class

+++See my latest video: Internet Security or Die+++ https://youtu.be/CzB5n6_pBfk
Learn Public Key Cryptography in just 18 Minutes - Cryptography Tutorial
In this Cryptography Tutorial, I teach you Public Key cryptography basics. Specifically I’m going to explain to you how the cryptography works, that allows you to do online shopping. We are so used to online shopping, a.k.a. e-commerce, that we take it for granted. But e-commerce would not be possible at all without public key cryptography. Not only will I explained to you the details of public-key cryptography and how that makes e-commerce possible, but I’m going to explain it in 15 minutes, and explain it without math, by using the Blackbox model.
IMHO, cryptography basics should not include math. Cryptography explained with math simply muddies the waters to those without extensive math background.
Let’s start by taking a brief look at Classic cryptography, which is been around for thousands of years. Classic cryptography is also called secret key cryptography or Symmetric cryptography.
A cipher is some sort of a mathematical algorithm that we use to scramble text. In the blackbox model the cipher itself is the blackbox into which we input plaintext and the key. The plaintext is the message that we wish to encrypt and the key is simply a string of numbers, generally binary ones and zeros. The output we get from the blackbox is called ciphertext, which is the plaintext that has been encrypted in such a way that it can only be decrypted by someone that has the same key that originally encrypted the data in the first place.
Some examples of Symmetric cryptography that are used today are DES, Triple DES & AES. These are the same as the ciphers used for thousands of years in that the same key encrypts and decrypts them. However the modern algorithm is much stronger.
If we use of good cipher such as AES the only way an attacker can decrypt the ciphertext is to try every possible key, called a brute force attack. That is why the longer the key the more security you get.
Now supposing Bob wants to buy something on the website Alice.com. He needs to make sure his personal information cannot be seen by anybody eavesdropping on his conversation over the public Internet. At first glance it seems easy enough for Bob to encrypt his plaintext personal information with Symmetric cryptography, using a secret key, send it across the Internet in an encrypted fashion, and then have Alice.com decrypt the information with the same secret key. The problem arises: how do Bob and Alice.com both get the same secret key, while making sure no one else gets the key? The answer is no one has ever thought of a very efficient way. In order to do this, a whole new type of encryption called public key encryption, a.k.a. Asymmetric encryption had to be invented first. In fact it was invented in the 1970s thousands of years after mankind first started using cryptography.

Views: 31998
Packethacks.com

In this network security video tutorial we will study the DES algorithm in cryptography. DES also known as Data Encryption Standard algorithm is one of the most famous and widely studied algorithm and is very important to study especially if you are a Computer Science or Information Technology student. We will also study and understand the variations of DES that is the Types of DES.
Types of DES -
1. Double DES
2. Triple DES
2.1 Triple DES with 3 Keys
2.2 Triple DES with 2 Keys
Data Encryption Standard Algorithm(DES) -
1. The Data Encryption Standard (DES) was developed in the 1970s by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS)with the help of the National Security Agency (NSA).
2. DES is a block cipher.
It encrypts data in block size of 64 bits each.
3. It produces 64 bit of cipher text
4. Same algorithm and key are used for encryption and decryption.
5. The key length is 56 bits. The key originally consists of 64 bits; however, only 56 of these are actually used by the algorithm. Eight bits are used solely for checking parity, and are thereafter discarded. Hence the effective key length is 56 bits.
6. Consists of 16 steps, each of which is called as a round. Each round performs the steps of substitution and transposition
DES is Based on two fundamental attributes:
1. Substitution - also called as confusion
2. Transposition - also called as diffusion
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#DES #DataEncryptionStandard #NetworkSecurity

Views: 6476
Simple Snippets

lll➤ Free Video-Chat: http://18cam.net
) More about MAC and hash functions for authentication and Introduction to public key cryptography in this IT Lecture.
Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a class of cryptographic algorithms which require two separate keys, one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
This video was made by another YouTube user and made available for the use under the Creative Commons licence "CC-BY". His channel can be found here:
https://www.youtube.com/user/StevesLectures

Views: 1767
Lernvideos und Vorträge

This tutorial explains how to encrypt and decrypt text using private and public key encryption, also known as asymmetric encryption.

Views: 1064
ma academy

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) also known as CBC algorithm mode.
Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) -
1. Chaining adds a feedback mechanism to a block cipher
2. The results of the encryption of the previous block are fed back into the encryption of the current block.
3. In the first step; the first block of plain text and a random block of text, called Initialization Vector (IV) is used.
4. The IV has no special meaning it is simply used to make each message unique.
5. The value of IV is generated randomly.
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#CipherBlockChaining #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

Views: 3942
Simple Snippets

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Electronic Code Block also known as ECB algorithm mode.
Electronic Code Block (ECB) -
1. The simplest mode of operation
2. Plain text message is divided into blocks of 64 bits each.
3. Each such block is encrypted independently of the other blocks.
4. For all blocks same key is used for encryption.
5. If a plain text block repeats in the original messages, the corresponding cipher text block will also repeat in the encrypted message.
6. Suitable only for small messages.
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#ElectronicCodeBook #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #ECB #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

Views: 2952
Simple Snippets

Digital Signature : If the Sender Private key is used at encryption then it is called digital signature. This digital Signature is implemented two approaches
1) RSA Approach
2) DSS Approach.

Views: 49723
Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety

RSA is an algorithm used by modern computers to encrypt and decrypt messages. Modern ecnryption is mostly based on this algorithm.
It is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm.
Asymmetric means that there are two different keys. This is also called public key cryptography, because one of the keys can be given to anyone. The other key must be kept private.
The algorithm is based on the fact that finding the factors of a large composite number is difficult: when the integers are prime numbers, the problem is called prime factorization. It is also a key pair (public and private key) generator.
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dProgrammer lopez

Public-key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography, is a class of cryptographic algorithms which require two separate keys, one of which is secret (or private) and one of which is public. Although different, the two parts of this key pair are mathematically linked. The public key is used to encrypt plaintext or to verify a digital signature; whereas the private key is used to decrypt ciphertext or to create a digital signature. The term "asymmetric" stems from the use of different keys to perform these opposite functions, each the inverse of the other -- as contrasted with conventional ("symmetric") cryptography which relies on the same key to perform both.
Public-key algorithms are based on mathematical problems which currently admit no efficient solution that are inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. It is computationally easy for a user to generate their own public and private key-pair and to use them for encryption and decryption. The strength lies in the fact that it is "impossible" (computationally infeasible) for a properly generated private key to be determined from its corresponding public key. Thus the public key may be published without compromising security, whereas the private key must not be revealed to anyone not authorized to read messages or perform digital signatures. Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties.
This video is targeted to blind users.
Attribution:
Article text available under CC-BY-SA
Creative Commons image source in video

Views: 766
Audiopedia

Namaskaar Dosto, is video mein maine aapko encryption ke baare mein bataya hai, aap sabhi ne computer aur internet use karte time Encryption aur decryption ke baare mein jarur suna hoga, usme aapko SSL encrytpion TSL Encryption, Public Key encryption, private key encryption wagereh ke baare mein bhi suna hoga, aur abhi recently whatsapp ne bhi end to end encryption launch kiya hai, toh aise mein hamare man mein bahut se sawaal hai ki aakhir yeh encryption hota kya hai? Encryption hum hamari email pe bhi use karte hai, aur hum online banking karte time bhi encryption ka use karte hai. Mujhe umeed hai ki yeh video dekhne ke baad aap encryption aur decryption ke baare mein sab kuch jaan jayenge, aur saath hi saath public key encryption ke baare mein bhi samajh jayenge. aur aap aaraam se whatsapp ke encryption feature ko bhi use kar payenge.
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Technical Guruji

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Asymmetric encryption has enabled the exchange of symmetric keys, encryption of data, digital signatures, and other significant security features. In this video, you’ll learn about these asymmetric algorithms and their use.
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Professor Messer

https://8gwifi.org/CipherFunctions.jsp
aes tutorial, cryptography advanced encryption standard
Computer Security, Cryptography Advanced Encryption Standard AES,fips 197
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specifies a FIPS-approved
cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext.
The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits.
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Views: 3955
Zariga Tongy

RSA Algorithm with solved Example | e-Commerce
RSA is an algorithm used by modern computers to encrypt and decrypt messages. It is an asymmetric cryptographic algorithm. Asymmetric means that there are two different keys. This is also called public key cryptography, because one of the keys can be given to anyone. The other key must be kept private.
Since this is asymmetric, nobody else except browser can decrypt the data even if a third party has public key of browser.
I. Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q.
II. Find n such that n = pq.
n will be used as the modulus for both the public and private keys.
III. Find the totient of n, ϕ(n)
ϕ(n)=(p-1)(q-1).
IV. Choose an e such that ϕ(n) share no divisors other than 1 (e and ϕ(n) are relatively prime).
e is kept as the public key exponent.
V. Determine d (using modular arithmetic) which satisfies the congruence relation
de ≡ 1 (mod ϕ(n)).
In other words, pick d such that de - 1 can be evenly divided by (p-1)(q-1), the totient, or ϕ(n).
This is often computed using the Extended Euclidean Algorithm, since e and ϕ(n) are relatively prime and d is to be the modular multiplicative inverse of e.
d is kept as the private key exponent.
The public key has modulus n and the public (or encryption) exponent e. The private key has modulus n and the private (or decryption) exponent d, which is kept secret.
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Bikki Mahato

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Counter Mode (CTR) also known as CTR algorithm mode.
Counter Mode (CTR) -
1. Counter Mode uses sequence numbers called as counters as the inputs.
2. Usually a constant is used as the initial counter value
Incremented for every iteration.
3. The size of the counter block is same as that of the plain text block.
Complete Network Security / Information Security Playlist - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkfggBVUJxY&list=PLIY8eNdw5tW_7-QrsY_n9nC0Xfhs1tLEK
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#CounterMode #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

Views: 1638
Simple Snippets

In this video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Diffie-Hellman Key exchange algorithm.
Symmetric Key Echange Problem -
1. Key exchange solution is not fool proof or is not practically possible.
2. This problem is called as key distribution or key exchange problem.
3. It is inherently linked with the symmetric key cryptography
Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange/ Agreement Algorithm -
1. Two parties, can agree on a symmetric key using this technique.
2. This can then be used for encryption/ decryption.
3. This algorithm can be used only for key agreement, but not for encryption or decryption.
4. It is based on mathematical principles
Diffie Hellman Algorithm Steps -
1. Firstly Alice and Bob mutually agree on 2 large prime numbers, n & g. These 2 numbers need not be kept secret.
2. Alice chooses another large random number x(private to her) and calculates A such that A = g^x mod n.
3. Alice sends this number A to Bob.
4. Bob independently chooses another large random number y(private to him) and calculates B such that B = g^y mod n.
5. Bob sends this number B to Alice.
6. Alice now computes her private key value K1 as: K1 = B^x mod n.
7. Bob computes his private key value K2 as: K2 = A^y mod n.
8. K1 == K2 (key exchange done successfully)
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Simple Snippets

Security+ Training Course Index: http://professormesser.link/sy0401
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Our encryption methods will generally use either symmetric encryption or asymmetric encryption, and sometimes both! In this video, you’ll learn the advantages and disadvantages when using symmetric or asymmetric encryption types.
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Professor Messer

This Tutorial Explain What is Digital Signature in Hindi.
A Digital Signature in Hindi (not to be confused with a digital certificate) is a mathematical technique used to validate the authenticity and integrity of a message, software or digital document.
It Covers Points like digital signature in cryptography in hindi, digital signature in network security and digital signature in dbms(advance database management system)
Digital Signature Use Asymatric Key to Encrypt Data.
Digital signatures are often used to implement electronic signatures, a broader term that refers to any electronic data that carries the intent of a signature
How digital signatures work
Digital signatures are based on public key cryptography, also known as asymmetric cryptography. Using a public key algorithm such as RSA, one can generate two keys that are mathematically linked: one private and one public. To create a digital signature, signing software (such as an email program) creates a one-way hash of the electronic data to be signed. The private key is then used to encrypt the hash. The encrypted hash -- along with other information, such as the hashing algorithm -- is the digital signature. The reason for encrypting the hash instead of the entire message or document is that a hash function can convert an arbitrary input into a fixed length value, which is usually much shorter. This saves time since hashing is much faster than signing.
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Reference Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_signature

Views: 3821
Introtuts

** Cybersecurity Online Training: https://www.edureka.co/cybersecurity-certification-training **
Cryptography is essential to protect the information shared across the internet. This video on What is cryptography explaines you the fundamental concepts along with various encryption techniques. Below are the topics covered in this tutorial:
1. What is Cryptography?
2. Classification of Cryptography
3. How various Cryptographic Algorithm Works?
4. Demo: RSA Cryptography
Cybersecurity Training Playlist: https://bit.ly/2NqcTQV
Subscribe to our channel to get video updates. Hit the subscribe button above.
About Edureka Cyber Security Training
Cybersecurity is the combination of processes, practices, and technologies designed to protect networks, computers, programs, data and information from attack, damage or unauthorized access.
Edureka’s Cybersecurity Certification Course will help you in learning about the basic concepts of Cybersecurity along with the methodologies that must be practiced ensuring information security of an organization. Starting from the Ground level Security Essentials, this course will lead you through Cryptography, Computer Networks & Security, Application Security, Data & Endpoint Security, idAM (Identity & Access Management), Cloud Security, Cyber-Attacks and various security practices for businesses.
------------------------------------------------
Why Learn Cyber Security?
Cybersecurity is the gathering of advances that procedures and practices expected to ensure systems, PCs, projects and information from assault, harm or unapproved get to. In a processing setting, security incorporates both cybersecurity and physical security, it is imperative since cyberattackers can without much of a stretch take and obliterate the profoundly grouped data of governments, defense offices and banks for which the results are huge so it is essential to have an appropriate innovation which an avoid digital wrongdoings.
---------------------------------------------------
Objectives of Edureka Cyber Security Course
This course is designed to cover a holistic & a wide variety of foundational topics of the cybersecurity domain which will be helpful to lead freshers as well as IT professional having 1 to 2 years of experience, into the next level of choice such as ethical hacking/ audit & compliance / GRC/ Security Architecture and so on
This course focuses mainly on the basics concepts of Cyber Security
In this course, we are going to deal with Ground level security essentials cryptography, computer networks & security, application security, data & endpoint security, idAM (identity & access management), cloud security, cyber-attacks and various security practices for businesses
This course will be your first step towards learning Cyber Security
--------------------------------------
Who Should go for this Training?
Anyone having the zeal to learn innovative technologies can take up this course. Especially, students and professionals aspiring to make a career in the Cybersecurity technology. However, Cybersecurity Certification Course is best suited for the below mentioned profiles:-
Networking Professionals
Linux Administrators
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edureka!

What is Hashing & Digital Signature in The Blockchain? https://blockgeeks.com/
Today, we're going to be talking about the word blockchain and breaking it down to understand what does it mean when someone says, "Blockchain."
What is hashing? Hashing refers to the concept of taking an arbitrary amount of input data, applying some algorithm to it, and generating a fixed-size output data called the hash. The input can be any number of bits that could represent a single character, an MP3 file, an entire novel, a spreadsheet of your banking history, or even the entire Internet. The point is that the input can be infinitely big. The hashing algorithm [00:01:00] can be chosen depending on your needs and there are many publicly available hashing algorithms. The point is that the algorithm takes the infinite input of bits, applies some calculations to them, and outputs a finite number of bits. For example, 256 bits.
What can this hash be used for? A common usage for hashes today is to fingerprint files, also known as check zones. This means that a hash is used to verify that a file has not been [00:01:30] tampered with or modified in any way not intended by the author. If WikiLeaks, for example, publishes a set of files along with their MD5 hashes, whoever downloads those files can verify that they are actually from WikiLeaks by calculating the MD5 hash of the downloaded files, and if the hash doesn't match what was published by WikiLeaks, then you know that the file has been modified in some way.
How does the blockchain make use of hashes? [00:02:00] Hashes are used in blockchains to represent the current state of the world. The input is the entire state of the blockchain, meaning all the transactions that have taken place so far and the resulting output hash represents the current state of the blockchain. The hash is used to agree between all parties that the world state is one in the same, but how are these hashes actually calculated?
The first hash is calculated for the first block [00:02:30] or the Genesis block using the transactions inside that block. The sequence of initial transactions is used to calculate a block hash for the Genesis block. For every new block that is generated afterwords, the previous block's hash is also used, as well as its own transactions, as input to determine its block hash. This is how a chain of blocks is formed, each new block hash pointing to the block hash that came before it.
This system of hashing guarantees that no transaction in the history can be tampered with because if any single part of the transaction changes, so does the hash of the block to which it belongs, and any following blocks' hashes as a result. It would be fairly easy to catch any tampering as a result because you can just compare the hashes. This is cool because everyone on the blockchain only needs to agree on 256 bits to represent the potentially infinite state of the blockchain. The Ethereum blockchain is currently tens of gigabytes, but the current state of the blockchain, as of this recording, is this hexadecimal hash representing 256 bits.
What about digital signatures? Digital signatures, like real signatures, are a way to prove that somebody is who they say they are, except that we use cryptography or math, which is more secure than handwritten signatures that can be [00:04:00] easily forged. A digital signature is a way to prove that a message originates from a specific person and no one else, like a hacker.
Digital signatures are used today all over the Internet. Whenever you visit a website over ACTPS, you are using SSL, which uses digital signatures to establish trust between you and the server. This means that when you visit Facebook.com, your browser can check the digital signature that came with the web page to verify that it indeed originated from Facebook and not some hacker.
In asymmetric encryption systems, users generate something called a key pair, which is a public key and a private key using some known algorithm. The public key and private key are associated with each other through some mathematical relationship. The public key is meant to be distributed publicly to serve as an address to receive messages from other users, like an IP address or home address. The private key is meant to be kept secret and is used to digitally sign messages sent to other users. The signature is included with the message so that the recipient can verify using the sender's public key. This way, the recipient can be sure that only the sender could have sent this message. Generating a key pair is analogous to creating an account on the blockchain, but without having to actually register anywhere. Pretty cool. Also, every transaction that is executed on the blockchain is digitally signed by the sender using their private key. This signature ensures that only the owner of the account can move money out of the account.

Views: 25829
Blockgeeks

In this network security video tutorial we will study the IDEA algorithm in cryptography. IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm.
IDEA algorithm theory -
1. IDEA was launched in 1990.
2. It was implemented in 1992 after underwent certain changes in names and capabilities.
3. IDEA is Quite strong, but not as popular as DES.
4. One popular email privacy technology known as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) based on IDEA.
5. It is a Block Cipher.
6. Like DES it works on 64-bit plain text block.
7. The Key consists of 128 bits.
8. Idea is reversible like DES
9. Idea uses both diffusion and confusion for encryption
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#IDEAAlgorithm #IDEA #NetworkSecurity #Encryption

Views: 6739
Simple Snippets

https://8gwifi.org/CipherFunctions.jsp
Encryption Decryption Online https://8gwifi.org/CipherFunctions.jsp
what is DES DATA ENCRYPTION STANDARD (DES)
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) specifies two FIPS approved
cryptographic algorithms as required by FIPS 140-1. When used in conjunction with American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) X9.52 standard, this publication provides a complete description
of the mathematical algorithms for encrypting (enciphering) and decrypting (deciphering) binary
coded information. Encrypting data converts it to an unintelligible form called cipher. Decrypting
cipher converts the data back to its original form called plaintext. The algorithms described in this
standard specifies both enciphering and deciphering operations which are based on a binary number
called a key
computer security cryptography
data encryption standard animation

Views: 72375
Zariga Tongy

Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi
Learn through active problem-solving at Brilliant: https://brilliant.org/InfiniteSeries/
Last episode we discussed Symmetric cryptography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NOs34_-eREk Here we break down Asymmetric crypto and more.
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Previous Episode
(Almost) Unbreakable Crypto | Infinite Series
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How To Break Cryptography
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Q3Mrh03Gk&list=PLa6IE8XPP_gnot4uwqn7BeRJoZcaEsG1D&index=2
Last time, we discussed symmetric encryption protocols, which rely on a user-supplied number called "the key" to drive an algorithm that scrambles messages. Since anything encrypted with a given key can only be decrypted with the same key, Alice and Bob can exchange secure messages once they agree on a key. But what if Alice and Bob are strangers who can only communicate over a channel monitored by eavesdroppers like Eve? How do they agree on a secret key in the first place?
Written and Hosted by Gabe Perez-Giz
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Views: 57385
PBS Infinite Series

Symmetric Encryption :
- Starts with plain readable data ( Plaintext ) and scramble it so it becomes an unreadable ciphertext.
- Encrypting the plaintext to ciphertext will give high-security to your confidential data and only the authorized person who is supported to read this document can read it.
Following are some Encryption terms related to encryption :
Plain text :
Information on its original form. This is known as real text.
Cyphertext :
Information after it has been obfuscated by the encryption algorithm.
Encryption :
The process of changing plaintext into ciphertext.
Decryption :
The process of changing ciphertext into plaintext.
Encryption Algorithm :
Defines how data is transformed when original plaintext data scrambled to
cyphertext.
Encryption Key :
A Key is a secret value, which is used as an input to the algorithm along with the
plaintext data when plaintext is converted into ciphertext.
Cryptography :
Art of concealing information using encryption.
Cryptographer :
An individual who practices cryptography.
Cryptanalysis :
Art of analyzing cryptographic algorithms for identifying the weaknesses.
Cryptanalyst :
An individual who uses cryptoanalysis to identify the weaknesses in the
cryptographic algorithm.
What is a symmetric encryption?
The process of converting readable data unreadable format and converting it back to a readable format using the same key.
Use the same key for encryption and decryption
Plain text is converted to ciphertext using a key at the receiving side, the same
the key is used to convert back the cyphertext to plain text.
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#TrevorTraining #ifactnertechnical #KevinWallace #ZoomTechnologies #AnkitShukla #NetCertExpert #CiscoTrainingChannel #CRISPBhopal #ManojShakya #ProfessorMesser #AhmadNadeem #myitfriends #RoyBiegel #ChrisBryant
#GlobalKnowledge #macglobal #certbros #ciscomeraki #cisconetworking #thenetworkingdoctors #moustaphafall #cscopr #danscourses #learningatcisco #networkshield #narayanbaghel #orahergun

Views: 42
NETWORKERS HOME

#askfaizan | #syedfaizanahmad |#RSA
How to find Euler's Totient Function https://youtu.be/6wHwTB-bRlw
DES | Simple Explanation | Data Encryption Standard Algo https://youtu.be/oR1JQJlXtq4
Network Security - Transposition Techniques https://youtu.be/h4MOqFkN9Tk
Block Cipher Modes of Operation | CTR mode https://youtu.be/Rp5HOTe4EbE
Block Cipher Modes of Operation | OFB mode https://youtu.be/F2RwmXwrdV8
Block Cipher Modes of Operation | CFB mode https://youtu.be/yF_iA7Rv7k4
Block Cipher Modes of Operation | CBC mode | Part 2 https://youtu.be/Q7LKmASkVSU
Block Cipher Modes of Operation | ECB mode | Part 1 https://youtu.be/mkY5mNSnuko
Hill Cipher | Complete Algorithm with Example https://youtu.be/B0Q7w7Fd7ms
Playfair Substitution Cipher https://youtu.be/w_xr7pj-O6c
Monoalphabetic Substitution Cipher https://youtu.be/Hw1T7GOnVW0
Caesar Cipher | Caesar Substitution Cipher https://youtu.be/2N9GlhysYJw
PlayList : Cryptography and Network Security : https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLhwpdymnbXz7hvvqhqjIIG4tEdhAgQqll
The RSA algorithm is named after Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Len Adleman, who invented it in 1977
RSA algorithm is asymmetric cryptography algorithm
Two different keys i.e. Public Key and Private Key

Views: 254
Ask Faizan

In this network security video tutorial we will study and understand the working of Output Feedback (OFB) also known as OFB algorithm mode.
Output Feedback (OFB) -
1. In this mode data is encrypted in units that are smaller (e.g. they could be of size 8 bits) than a defined block size (which is usually 64 bits).
2. OFB mode works with j bits at a time (as we have seen, usually, but not always , j = 8)
3. OFB mode is extremely similar to the CFB
4. The only difference is that in the case of CFB, the cipher text is fed into the next stage of encryption process.
5. In case of OFB, the output of the IV encryption process is fed into the next stage of encryption process.
Following are the steps of OFB mode -
Step 1 - Encrypt the IV(initialization vector) using the KEY to get the Encrypted IV.
Step 2 - Perform XOR operation between first j bits of encrypted IV and j bits of Plain Text to get j bits of Cipher Text(Cipher text block 1)
Step 3 - left shift the IV by j bits & add theencrypted IV from the previous step to the right most side of the original IV.
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#OutputFeedbackMode #AlgorithmModes #NetworkSecurity #Cryptography #BlockCiphers

Views: 2120
Simple Snippets

Someone wants to send a message, m to 3 people (without any padding) with public keys n1, n2 and n3 and public exponent of 3. The article says:
By using the Chinese Remainder Theorem, the eavesdropper computes a number c such that c=m^3 mod n1⋅n2⋅n3.
In this lecture we have explained how the Low Exponent Attack works. It is also known as Low Public Exponent Attack.
Eavesdropper used this attack to break the RSA Algorithm. This attack comes under the Protocol Failure Attacks on RSA.
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Quick Trixx

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What is Cryptography?
Cryptography is a very interesting science of information security. The word Cryptography is derived from Greek kryptos, meaning hidden. Cryptography is not alone word or one word for all related information security science. Words like cryptanalysis, cipher and cryptology are always included in this science. Cryptography includes techniques such as microdots, merging words with images, and other ways to hide information in storage or transit. However, in today's computer-centric world, cryptography is most often associated with scrambling plaintext (ordinary text, sometimes referred to as clear text) into cipher text (unreadable text obtained after a process called encryption), then back again (known as decryption). Individuals who practice this field are known as cryptographers.
There is also a word, Cryptosystem that you will see a lot in this video course. Procedures and protocols that are used in cryptography makes up a system that is known as cryptosystem. Cryptosystem are mostly referred as computer programs or protocols but I would like it to extend to a much wider plot. It also include human behavior as social engineering is still one of the fastest technique to compromise a system or application. Things like choosing typical password, logging off unused systems, protecting sensitive files also plays a vital role in cryptosystem.
Although, it is considered that 1st use of modern cryptography was by Julius Caesar, who did not trust his messenger when communicating with his governors. But I think the need of encryption came in high demand after the invention of radio as one can tune into your frequency range and intercept your message. But if the transmission is encrypted then things get changed. In recent times, cryptography has turned into a battleground of some of the world's best mathematicians and computer scientists. The ability to securely store and transfer sensitive information has proved a critical factor in success in war and business.
To understand more about cryptography, let’s call our friends Alice and Bob. Now Alice wants to transfer some information to Bob but wants to do it securely. Alice decided that instead of transferring information in clear text form, I’ll encrypt this text with some algorithm and key. Then I’ll pass this cipher text. Now bob should also have the key and decryption algorithm to read the information.
The two major problems are secure transfer of key and knowledge about algorithm. Things like degree of complexity of algorithm and its randomness also plays a vital role in cryptography. This course is going to be a detailed overview about all these things.

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Hitesh Choudhary

RSA being a public key crypto-system has two keys, the Public key and the Private key. The Encryption is done using one and the decryption is done using the other. Normally, the encryption is done using the Public key and the decryption is done using the Private key. The RSA modulus (explained below) length is called the key length of the cipher. The currently largest factored prime number had 768 bit. As the security of RSA depends on the factoring problem, using a modulus of 1024 bits is a bare minimum. It is recommended to use at least 2048 bits for good security. 4096 bit is pretty much unbreakable, anything beyond 4096 bits is over the top and would also be painfully slow. #selfhostwcf, #p2pnetworkprogramming,#netcorecommerce

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Freelance Web Developments

What is AVALANCHE EFFECT? What does AVALANCHE EFFECT mean? AVALANCHE EFFECT meaning - AVALANCHE EFFECT definition - AVALANCHE EFFECT explanation.
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Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license.
In cryptography, the avalanche effect is the desirable property of cryptographic algorithms, typically block ciphers and cryptographic hash functions, wherein if an input is changed slightly (for example, flipping a single bit), the output changes significantly (e.g., half the output bits flip). In the case of high-quality block ciphers, such a small change in either the key or the plaintext should cause a drastic change in the ciphertext. The actual term was first used by Horst Feistel, although the concept dates back to at least Shannon's diffusion.
If a block cipher or cryptographic hash function does not exhibit the avalanche effect to a significant degree, then it has poor randomization, and thus a cryptanalyst can make predictions about the input, being given only the output. This may be sufficient to partially or completely break the algorithm. Thus, the avalanche effect is a desirable condition from the point of view of the designer of the cryptographic algorithm or device.
Constructing a cipher or hash to exhibit a substantial avalanche effect is one of the primary design objectives, and mathematically the construction takes advantage of butterfly effect. This is why most block ciphers are product ciphers. It is also why hash functions have large data blocks. Both of these features allow small changes to propagate rapidly through iterations of the algorithm, such that every bit of the output should depend on every bit of the input before the algorithm terminates.
The strict avalanche criterion (SAC) is a formalization of the avalanche effect. It is satisfied if, whenever a single input bit is complemented, each of the output bits changes with a 50% probability. The SAC builds on the concepts of completeness and avalanche and was introduced by Webster and Tavares in 1985.
Higher-order generalizations of SAC involve multiple input bits. Boolean functions which satisfy the highest order SAC are always bent functions, also called maximally nonlinear functions, also called "perfect nonlinear" functions.

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The Audiopedia

Spies used to meet in the park to exchange code words, now things have moved on - Robert Miles explains the principle of Public/Private Key Cryptography
note1: Yes, it should have been 'Obi Wan' not 'Obi One' :)
note2: The string of 'garbage' text in the two examples should have been different to illustrate more clearly that there are two different systems in use.
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Computerphile

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Hashing Algorithms are used to ensure file authenticity, but how secure are they and why do they keep changing? Tom Scott hashes it out.
More from Tom Scott: http://www.youtube.com/user/enyay and https://twitter.com/tomscott
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This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley.
Pigeon Sound Effects courtesy of http://www.freesfx.co.uk/
Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran's Numberphile. See the full list of Brady's video projects at: http://bit.ly/bradychannels

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Computerphile

Cryptography or cryptology (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, translit. kryptós "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "to write", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively[1]) is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries.[2] More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages;[3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation[4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, electrical engineering, communication science, and physics. Applications of cryptography include electronic commerce, chip-based payment cards, digital currencies, computer passwords, and military communications.
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Cyber Yodha

In cryptography, a message authentication code (MAC), sometimes known as a tag, is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message—in other words, to confirm that the message came from the stated sender (its authenticity) and has not been changed. The MAC value protects both a message's data integrity as well as its authenticity, by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content.

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CSE Technical Videos

All about cryptography and information security which a computer graduate must know.
Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. More generally, cryptography is about constructing and analyzing protocols that prevent third parties or the public from reading private messages;[3] various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation[4] are central to modern cryptography. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include military communications, electronic commerce, ATM cards, and computer passwords.
Cryptography prior to the modern age was effectively synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent nonsense. The originator of an encrypted message (Alice) shared the decoding technique needed to recover the original information only with intended recipients (Bob), thereby precluding unwanted persons (Eve) from doing the same. The cryptography literature often uses Alice ("A") for the sender, Bob ("B") for the intended recipient, and Eve ("eavesdropper") for the adversary.[5] Since the development of rotor cipher machines in World War I and the advent of computers in World War II, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread.
Modern cryptography is heavily based on mathematical theory and computer science practice; cryptographic algorithms are designed around computational hardness assumptions, making such algorithms hard to break in practice by any adversary. It is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. These schemes are therefore termed computationally secure; theoretical advances, e.g., improvements in integer factorization algorithms, and faster computing technology require these solutions to be continually adapted. There exist information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken even with unlimited computing power—an example is the one-time pad—but these schemes are more difficult to implement than the best theoretically breakable but computationally secure mechanisms.
The growth of cryptographic technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptography's potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led many governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use and export.In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation.Cryptography also plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.

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Gyan Gurukool

I will report on recent results about quantum algorithms for solving computational problems in number theory. I will show how they impact the security of certain post-quantum cryptosystems. Shor's quantum algorithm for factoring large integers and solving the discrete logarithm problem has been the motivation for an entire new area of research in cryptology: namely "post-quantum" cryptography. It consists of designing new cryptographic primitives which will resist attacks from quantum computers. In a recent work in collaboration with Fang Song, I presented a quantum polynomial time algorithm for solving the so-called "Principal Ideal Problem" (among other things) in arbitrary fields. We will see how this impacts the security of some ring-based proposals for quantum resistant cryptography. In collaboration with David Jao and Anirudh Sankar, I also described a quantum algorithm which finds an isogeny between two given supersingular curves over a finite field, a hard problem on which some post-quantum cryptosystem rely. Finally, if there is enough time, I'll mention some recent work on factorization.
See more on this video at https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/video/quantum-algorithms-number-theory-relevance-cryptography/

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Microsoft Research

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Reference book: http://leanpub.com/crypto
Computer Security, Cryptography Advanced Encryption Standard AES,fips 197
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) specifies a FIPS-approved
cryptographic algorithm that can be used to protect electronic data. The AES algorithm is a symmetric block cipher that can encrypt (encipher) and decrypt (decipher) information. Encryption converts data to an unintelligible form called ciphertext; decrypting the ciphertext converts the data back into its original form, called plaintext.
The AES algorithm is capable of using cryptographic keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits to encrypt and decrypt data in blocks of 128 bits.
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Zariga Tongy

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers cannot read it, but that authorized parties can.[1]:374 In an encryption scheme, the message or information (referred to as plaintext) is encrypted using an encryption algorithm, turning it into an unreadable ciphertext (ibid.). This is usually done with the use of an encryption key, which specifies how the message is to be encoded. Any adversary that can see the ciphertext should not be able to determine anything about the original message. An authorized party, however, is able to decode the ciphertext using a decryption algorithm, that usually requires a secret decryption key, that adversaries do not have access to. For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually needs a key-generation algorithm to randomly produce keys.
There are two basic types of encryption schemes: Symmetric-key and public-key encryption.[1]:375-376 In symmetric-key schemes, the encryption and decryption keys are the same. Thus communicating parties must agree on a secret key before they wish to communicate. In public-key schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt messages. However, only the receiving party has access to the decryption key and is capable of reading the encrypted messages.[2] Public-key encryption is a relatively recent invention: historically, all encryption schemes have been symmetric-key (also called private-key) schemes.[1]:478
Encryption has long been used by militaries and governments to facilitate secret communication. It is now commonly used in protecting information within many kinds of civilian systems. For example, the Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage.[3] Encryption can be used to protect data "at rest", such as files on computers and storage devices (e.g. USB flash drives). In recent years there have been numerous reports of confidential data such as customers' personal records being exposed through loss or theft of laptops or backup drives. Encrypting such files at rest helps protect them should physical security measures fail. Digital rights management systems which prevent unauthorized use or reproduction of copyrighted material and protect software against reverse engineering (see also copy protection) is another somewhat different example of using encryption on data at rest.

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ITGoodGuy

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How to use python to encrypt sensitive information, and later decrypt it, using PyCrypto!
PyCrypto: https://www.dlitz.net/software/pycrypto/
The Code: http://sentdex.com/sentiment-analysisbig-data-and-python-tutorials/encryption-and-decryption-in-python-code-example-with-explanation/

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