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STEM Experiment: Laser Refraction Tank
 
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Lasers are awesome! Join us as we learn how this wonderful device can be used to simulate various eye conditions like farsightedness and nearsightedness and learn why light bends when going through objects. We also discuss many of the concepts covered such as reflection, refraction, Snell’s Law and so much more! Laser Refraction Tank - goo.gl/Fj1KNx -- 2018 Product Catalog - goo.gl/Wk2ysK Visit us - http://american-scientific.com/ Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/AmericanScientific/ Twitter - http://twitter.com/AmSciTeam Instagram - http://www.instagram.com/amsciteam/ Music by: Nicolai Heidlas
Snell's law of Refraction
 
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An experimental demonstration of Snell's law of Refraction. Light is shone through a glass block at various angles. A calibrated paper template allows the angles of incidence and refraction to be determined. (The angle of incidence is also spoken out during the experiment).
Views: 419160 QuantumBoffin
Troubled Waters -  Big Waves Beneath the Sea Surface
 
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Speaker: Professor Peter Davies, FRSE, Professor of Fluid Dynamics, University of Dundee. Observations of the surface of the sea can often be misleading. Even with relatively calm conditions, powerful waves capable of destroying underwater vehicles and tilting offshore platforms may still exist deep within the water column. These so-called internal waves, some of which have amplitudes of more than 100m, propagate on density surfaces and are ubiquitous in the world's shallow seas and deep oceans. Professor Davies showed observational evidence for these waves and described attempts to model their behaviour.
Triangle video
 
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Part 2 of our Waves Refraction Project: In this video, we show how a laser is refracted through a triangular medium.
MIT Technology Day 1993—"Riding the Wave of Innovation: The Ocean and MIT"
 
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MIT's 1993 Technology Day, on the theme "Riding the Wave of Innovation: The Ocean and MIT," takes place June 4, 1993. Speakers featured in the morning symposium include Sylvia Earle, "Exploring the Ocean with Unmanned Vehicles"; Robert Spindel, "Measuring the Ocean Environment"; Carl Wunsch '62, "Effects of the Ocean on Global Climate"; William Koch '62, "Technology for the America's Cup." Francis Ogilvie is the moderator. The event concludes with Paul Gray accepting for MIT two gifts from America's Cup winner Bill Koch '62: a boat model of "America [Cubed]", the winning boat designed at MIT, given to the MIT Hart Nautical Collections; and a half-scale silver model of the America's Cup Trophy given to the MIT Athletic Department.
Technology Day 2001—"Origins and Beyond: Our Place in the Cosmos"
 
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The 2001 MIT Technology Day takes place June 9, 2001, on the theme "Origins and Beyond: Our Place in the Cosmos." Featured speakers include Eric S. Lander, "The Human Genome and Beyond"; Claude R. Canizares, "The Origin of the Universe"; Maria T. Zuber, "Probing the Origin of the Planets from Spacecraft"; Charles R. Marshall, "On Palaeontology". The event is chaired by MIT President Charles M. Vest.
Webinar by Roxanne Prichard, Ph.D. "Surviving Sleep Deprivation"
 
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Dr. Roxanne Prichard is an Associate Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology, and the Scientific Director for the Center for College Sleep at the University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota. Dr. Prichard's presentation is titled, " Surviving Sleep Deprivation: Lessons from the Death of Elvis Presley."
Is a Turing test for intelligence equivalent to a Turing test for consciousness?
 
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Christof Koch, Allen Institute for Brain Research Abstract: Rapid advances in convolutional networks and other machine learning techniques, in combination with large data bases and the relentless hardware advances due to Moore’s Law, have brought us closer to the day when we will be able to have extended conversations with programmable systems, such as advanced versions of Alexa or Siri, without being able to tell their siren voices from those of humans. This raises the questions to which extent systems that can pass a non-trivial version of the Turing test will also feel anything, that is, be conscious. I shall argue against this possibility for three reasons. Firstly, intelligent behavior, including speech, is conceptually radically different from subjective experience. Secondly, clinical case studies demonstrate that the neural basis of intelligence, self-monitoring, insights and other higher-order cognitive processes in the frontal regions of neocortex are distinct from the neural correlates of conscious experience in the posterior cortex. Thirdly, Integrated Information Theory (IIT), a fundamental theory of consciousness, predicts that conventional computers, even though they will be able, at least in principle, to simulate human-level behavior, will not experience anything. Building human-level consciousness requires neuromorphic computer architectures. Speaker Bio: Christof Koch is an American neuroscientist best known for his studies and writings exploring the basis of consciousness. Trained as a physicist, Koch was for 27 years a professor of biology and engineering at the California Institute of Technology. He is now Chief Scientist and President of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle, leading a ten year, large-scale, high through-put effort to build brain observatories to map, analyze and understand the mouse and human cerebral cortex. On a quest to understand the physical roots of consciousness, he published his first paper on the neural correlates of consciousness with the molecular biologist Francis Crick more than a quarter of a century ago. He is a frequent public speaker and writes a regular column for Scientific American. Christof is a vegetarian and cyclist who lives in Seattle and loves big dogs, climbing and rowing.
Animal consciousness
 
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Animal consciousness, or animal awareness, is the quality or state of self-awareness within an animal, or of being aware of an external object or something within itself. In humans, consciousness has been defined as: sentience, awareness, subjectivity, qualia, the ability to experience or to feel, wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood, and the executive control system of the mind. Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is. The topic of animal consciousness is beset with a number of difficulties. It poses the problem of other minds in an especially severe form because animals, lacking the ability to express human language, cannot tell us about their experiences. Also, it is difficult to reason objectively about the question, because a denial that an animal is conscious is often taken to imply that it does not feel, its life has no value, and that harming it is not morally wrong. The 17th-century French philosopher René Descartes, for example, has sometimes been blamed for mistreatment of animals because he argued that only humans are conscious. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 286 Audiopedia
Webinar: Spotlight on Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter, Part 1
 
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Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter 3 (WZAM3) is a national, collaborative study led by the New Knowledge Organization, Ltd., COSI’s Center for Research and Evaluation, and the Center for Research on Lifelong STEM Learning at Oregon State University, in partnership with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. It is the third iteration of Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter, a 20-year-long effort to understand how zoos and aquariums contribute to American society. Learn more about the history on the project website: www.wzam.org. This webinar was produced in collaboration with the Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education. WZAM3 is funded by the National Science Foundation, under award numbers DRL 1612729 and DRL 1612699.
To find the refractive index of a glass prism
 
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MIT Tech Day 2008: Out of This World - M. Tegmark,  D. Newman, C. Breazeal
 
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Mod-06 Lec-13 Variability of organized convection over the tropical oceans
 
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The monsoon and its variability by Prof. Sulochana Gadgil,Department of Atmospheric Science,IISc Bangalore.For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.ac.in
Views: 206 nptelhrd
Observational astronomy | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observational_astronomy 00:01:11 1 Subdivisions 00:02:48 1.1 Methods 00:04:05 1.2 Important factors 00:06:53 1.3 Measuring results 00:07:47 2 Developments and diversity 00:08:19 2.1 Radio astronomy 00:09:24 2.2 Late 20th century developments 00:10:32 2.3 Other instruments 00:11:32 3 Observation tools 00:11:42 3.1 Telescopes 00:14:17 3.2 Photography 00:15:24 3.2.1 Advantages 00:16:08 3.2.2 Blink comparator 00:16:37 3.3 Micrometer 00:17:16 3.4 Spectrograph 00:18:43 3.5 Photoelectric photometry 00:20:03 4 Observing 00:22:30 5 See also 00:22:51 6 Related lists Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments. As a science, the study of astronomy is somewhat hindered in that direct experiments with the properties of the distant universe are not possible. However, this is partly compensated by the fact that astronomers have a vast number of visible examples of stellar phenomena that can be examined. This allows for observational data to be plotted on graphs, and general trends recorded. Nearby examples of specific phenomena, such as variable stars, can then be used to infer the behavior of more distant representatives. Those distant yardsticks can then be employed to measure other phenomena in that neighborhood, including the distance to a galaxy. Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw. Since that time, observational astronomy has made steady advances with each improvement in telescope technology.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
Josefino Comiso Maniac Lecture, 5 November 2013
 
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NASA climate scientist Dr. Josefino Comiso presented a Maniac Talk entitled "Jeep Accident, Sea Ice Anomalies and Global Warming." Joey shared some of his experiences growing up in northern Philippines and his sea ice work at NASA GSFC that led to many breakthroughs in our understanding of the role of sea ice and the polar regions in the climate system.
Views: 312 GSFC MANIAC
The Role of Child Care Subsidies in the Lives of Low-Income Children
 
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On May 25, 2016, the Self-Sufficiency Research Clearinghouse (SSRC) hosted the The Role of Child Care Subsidies in the Lives of Low-Income Children Webinar. During this free Webinar, SSRC Emerging Scholar Dr. Anna Johnson discussed child care subsidies, a key work support designed to promote self-sufficiency among low-income families. Dr. Johnson highlighted the potential of the child care subsidy program to serve not just parental employment goals but also to enhance low-income children's development and preparedness for school. Ms. Gayle Hamilton served as the Discussant, and Dr. Kristin Moore moderated the discussion.
Views: 102 OPRESSRC
Information and communication technologies for development | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_and_communication_technologies_for_development 00:01:08 1 History 00:06:01 2 Theoretical background 00:09:42 2.1 Traditions of First Generation ICTD Research 00:12:57 3 ICT access and use 00:18:11 3.1 ICTD hit for six 00:18:54 3.2 Global Trends 00:22:03 3.3 Data 00:23:22 3.4 ICTD training 00:25:48 4 Applications 00:27:22 4.1 Agriculture 00:34:54 4.2 Climate change and environment 00:49:00 4.3 Education 00:52:49 4.3.1 ICT for Education 00:55:30 4.4 Literacy 01:00:26 4.5 Health 01:04:19 4.6 e-Commerce 01:08:05 4.7 E-government and civic engagement 01:11:42 5 Civic Engagement Through Social Media 01:16:25 5.1 Business 01:17:11 5.2 Other 01:32:12 5.3 ICT for Food Security 01:38:08 6 Organizations 01:45:33 6.1 Lessons learned 01:47:52 6.2 Sustainability and Scalability 01:50:49 6.3 Sustainable Development Goals 01:52:09 6.3.1 Goal Number 1: No Poverty 01:54:05 6.3.2 Goal Number 2: Zero Hunger 01:58:51 6.3.3 Goal Number 3: Good Health & Well-being 02:00:03 6.3.4 Goal Number 4: Quality Education 02:01:40 6.3.5 Goal Number 5: Gender Equality 02:02:24 6.3.6 Goal Number 6: Clean Water and Sanitation 02:04:04 6.3.7 Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy 02:04:40 6.3.8 Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth 02:05:15 6.3.9 Goal Number 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure 02:06:27 6.3.10 Goal Number 10: Reduced Inequalities 02:07:12 6.3.11 Goal Number 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities 02:08:04 6.3.12 Goal Number 12: Responsible Consumption and Production 02:08:47 6.3.13 Goal Number 13: Climate Action 02:09:58 6.3.14 Goal Number 14: Life Below Water 02:10:54 6.3.15 Goal Number 15: Life on Land 02:12:09 6.3.16 Goal Number 16: Peace, Justice & Strong Institutions 02:13:08 6.3.17 Goal Number 17: Partnerships for the Goals 02:15:59 6.3.18 Challenges 02:19:18 7 Inclusive innovation 02:29:38 7.1 Business Strategies for the ICT Sector in Expanding Economic Opportunity 02:30:29 7.2 Creating Inclusive Business Models 02:31:24 7.3 Horizontal Deepening 02:32:37 7.4 Developing Local Partner Networks 02:35:09 8 Impact assessment 02:39:55 8.1 Categorizing impact and its assessment 02:42:16 9 Mainstreaming and sidestreaming 02:45:10 10 Vision of a compelling narrative 02:47:11 11 ICT 4D Value Chain 02:49:15 12 Criticisms and challenges 02:53:36 12.1 Myths of ICT4D 02:59:56 12.2 The 9 myths of ICT in education 03:06:16 12.3 Neoliberalization of education 03:11:09 12.4 Three key challenges 03:12:59 12.5 Post-2015 gaps – new development-oriented priorities 03:21:56 12.6 Other issues 03:25:51 12.6.1 E-waste through improved design and recycling 03:27:32 12.6.2 Initial problems 03:28:38 12.7 Rebound environmental effects 03:29:44 12.8 The Dark Side of ICT4D 03:33:02 13 World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) + 10 Challenges 03:34:46 14 WSIS + 10 Beyond 2015 Priorities 03:38:33 15 ICT4D and WSIS Moving Forward 03:42:28 16 Case Studies in Different Countries and Regions 03:42:39 16.1 Africa 03:50:55 16.2 Bangladesh 03:52:17 16.2.1 In Bangladesh 03:54:06 16.3 Cambodia 03:57:41 16.4 China 03:57:49 16.4.1 Establishing eCommunity centers 03:59:01 16.4.2 The CABTS Network 04:00:04 16.4.3 China's agricultural information dissemination models 04:02:14 16.5 Indonesia 04:02:23 16.5.1 ICT policy 04:03:51 16.5.2 Infrastructure 04:05:13 16.5.3 Program planning and development 04:06:41 16.5.4 Content provision 04:07:39 16.5.5 Capability building 04:08:42 16.6 Kingdom of Bhutan 04:11:58 16.7 Lao PDR 04:13:27 16.8 Malaysia 04:14:37 16.8.1 Population and human resource development (poverty eradication) 04:16:07 16.8.2 Regional and agriculture development 04:17:47 16.8.3 Health 04:18:21 16.8.4 Youth and woman development 04:19:19 16.8.5 Government 04:19:49 16.9 New Zealand 04:21:50 16.9.1 Millennium Development Goals - 2015 04:22:37 16.9.2 National ICT Policies 04:23:09 16.9.3 Studies comparing New Zealand and Australia 04:25:59 16.10 Philippines 04:28:27 16.10.1 Applications 04:46:55 16.10.1.1 ICT related bills 04:48:53 16.10.2 ICT - related programs and projects in the Philippinessup[273]/sup 04:49:40 16.10.2.1 Agricultural Extension and the OPAPA 04:53:09 16.11 Thailand 04:54:18 16.11.1 School Net Thailand 04:54:49 16.11.2 Government information network 04:55:16 16.11.3 ICT laws 04:55:35 16.11.4 IT 2010 04:56:18 16.11.5 ICT 2020/SMART THAILAND 2020 04:58:48 16.12 United Arab Emirates 05:00:24 16.13 Zimbabwe 05:02:41 17 International programs, agencies, and strategies 05:02:54 17.1 APTIVATE 05:03:41 17.2 CIDA 05:09:04 17.3 eLAC 05:10:51 17.4 GFAR 05:14:28 17.5 Girls in ICT 05:17:05 17.6 ICT4Peace 05:23:02 17.7 IDRC 05:23:40 17.8 IICD 05:25:27 17.9 SDC 05:26:52 17.10 SiRC 05:28:19 17.11 SIRCA 05:36:00 17.12 SPIDER 05:36:57 17.13 UNCTAD 05:38:03 17.14 W.TEC 05:39:48 18 Future 05:48:27 19 See also 05:48:36 20 Sources Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at aro ...
Views: 360 wikipedia tts
History of physics | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:17:27
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of physics Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science. The primary objects of study are matter and energy. Physics is, in one sense, the oldest and most basic academic pursuit; its discoveries find applications throughout the natural sciences, since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world. The other sciences are generally more limited in their scope and may be considered branches that have split off from physics to become sciences in their own right. Physics today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics.
Views: 104 wikipedia tts
Astronomical observation | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observational_astronomy 00:01:18 1 Subdivisions 00:03:03 1.1 Methods 00:04:26 1.2 Important factors 00:07:29 1.3 Measuring results 00:08:28 2 Developments and diversity 00:09:01 2.1 Radio astronomy 00:10:11 2.2 Late 20th century developments 00:11:26 2.3 Other instruments 00:12:30 3 Observation tools 00:12:40 3.1 Telescopes 00:15:31 3.2 Photography 00:16:43 3.2.1 Advantages 00:17:30 3.2.2 Blink comparator 00:18:02 3.3 Micrometer 00:18:45 3.4 Spectrograph 00:20:19 3.5 Photoelectric photometry 00:21:47 4 Observing 00:24:27 5 See also 00:24:51 6 Related lists Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8086794368755928 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice and study of observing celestial objects with the use of telescopes and other astronomical instruments. As a science, the study of astronomy is somewhat hindered in that direct experiments with the properties of the distant universe are not possible. However, this is partly compensated by the fact that astronomers have a vast number of visible examples of stellar phenomena that can be examined. This allows for observational data to be plotted on graphs, and general trends recorded. Nearby examples of specific phenomena, such as variable stars, can then be used to infer the behavior of more distant representatives. Those distant yardsticks can then be employed to measure other phenomena in that neighborhood, including the distance to a galaxy. Galileo Galilei turned a telescope to the heavens and recorded what he saw. Since that time, observational astronomy has made steady advances with each improvement in telescope technology.
Views: 3 wikipedia tts
01/30/2018 - NMUSD Board of Education Meeting
 
02:40:07
Newport-Mesa Unified School District does not have control over suggested YouTube content. The district neither endorses nor supports the views expressed in any YouTube content other than that which is specifically hosted on the official Newport-Mesa Unified School District YouTube channel.
Ancient physics | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:40:36
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_physics 00:00:47 1 Ancient history 00:01:33 1.1 Ancient Greece 00:10:20 1.2 India and China 00:13:07 1.3 Islamic world 00:20:52 1.4 Medieval Europe 00:23:12 2 Scientific revolution 00:24:07 2.1 Nicolaus Copernicus 00:26:07 2.2 Galileo Galilei 00:32:05 2.3 René Descartes 00:35:21 2.4 Isaac Newton 00:40:59 2.5 Other achievements 00:43:34 2.5.1 Early thermodynamics 00:47:14 3 18th-century developments 00:47:52 3.1 Mechanics 00:52:55 3.2 Thermodynamics 00:57:26 4 19th century 01:01:17 4.1 Laws of thermodynamics 01:04:38 4.2 Statistical mechanics (a fundamentally new approach to science) 01:09:24 5 20th century: birth of modern physics 01:11:28 5.1 Radiation experiments 01:13:49 5.2 Albert Einstein's theory of relativity 01:15:24 5.2.1 Special relativity 01:15:32 5.2.2 General relativity 01:20:31 5.3 Quantum mechanics 01:23:04 6 Contemporary and particle physics 01:27:40 6.1 Quantum field theory 01:27:52 6.2 Unified field theories 01:30:35 6.3 Standard Model 01:31:26 6.4 Cosmology 01:34:27 6.5 Higgs boson 01:36:19 7 Physical sciences 01:38:47 8 Seminal physics publications 01:40:11 9 See also 01:40:22 10 Notes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8099070680427396 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of science. The primary objects of study are matter and energy. Physics is, in one sense, the oldest and most basic academic pursuit; its discoveries find applications throughout the natural sciences, since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world. The other sciences are generally more limited in their scope and may be considered branches that have split off from physics to become sciences in their own right. Physics today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics.
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Measurement and signature intelligence | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measurement_and_signature_intelligence 00:04:03 1 Understanding "measurement" and "signature" 00:07:06 2 National and multinational 00:08:05 2.1 China 00:08:23 2.2 Germany 00:08:53 2.3 Italy 00:09:23 2.4 Russia 00:09:42 2.5 United Kingdom 00:10:10 2.6 United States 00:12:56 2.6.1 MASINT from clandestinely placed sensors 00:14:01 2.7 Multinational counterproliferation 00:15:08 3 Military uses 00:16:13 3.1 Non-cooperative target recognition 00:16:39 3.2 Unattended ground sensors 00:20:01 3.3 Research programs: Smart Dust and WolfPack 00:21:26 4 Disciplines 00:23:49 5 Basic interaction of energy sources with targets 00:26:56 5.1 Classes of sensor 00:28:34 5.1.1 Passive sensing 00:30:10 5.1.2 Active sensors 00:31:17 5.2 Quality of sensing 00:32:42 5.3 Cueing Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.99720680660437 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) is a technical branch of intelligence gathering, which serves to detect, track, identify or describe the signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. This often includes radar intelligence, acoustic intelligence, nuclear intelligence, and chemical and biological intelligence. MASINT is defined as scientific and technical intelligence derived from the analysis of data obtained from sensing instruments for the purpose of identifying any distinctive features associated with the source, emitter or sender, to facilitate the latter’s measurement and identification.MASINT may have aspects of intelligence analysis management, since certain aspects of MASINT, such as the analysis of electromagnetic radiation received by signals intelligence, are more of an analysis technique than a collection method. Some MASINT techniques require purpose-built sensors. MASINT was recognized by the United States Department of Defense as an intelligence discipline in 1986. MASINT is technically derived intelligence that—when collected, processed, and analyzed by dedicated MASINT systems—results in intelligence that detects and classifies targets, and identifies or describes signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. In addition to MASINT, IMINT and HUMINT can subsequently be used to track or more precisely classify targets identified through the intelligence process. While traditional IMINT and SIGINT are not considered to be MASINT efforts, images and signals from other intelligence-gathering processes can be further examined through the MASINT discipline, such as determining the depth of buried assets in imagery gathered through the IMINT process. William K. Moore described the discipline: "MASINT looks at every intelligence indicator with new eyes and makes available new indicators as well. It measures and identifies battlespace entities via multiple means that are difficult to spoof and it provides intelligence that confirms the more traditional sources, but is also robust enough to stand with spectrometry to differentiate between paint and foliage, or recognizing radar decoys because the signal lacks unintentional characteristics of the real radar system. At the same time, it can detect things that other sensors cannot sense, or sometimes it can be the first sensor to recognize a potentially critical datum."It can be difficult to draw a line between tactical sensors and strategic MASINT sensors. Indeed, the same sensor may be used tactically or strategically. In a tactical role, a submarine might use acoustic sensors—active and passive sonar—to close in on a target or get away from a pursuer. Those same passive sonars may be used by a submarine, operating stealthily in a foreign harbor, to characterize the signature of a new submarine type. MASINT and technical intelligence (TECHINT) can overlap. A good distinction is that a technical in ...
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Ball lightning | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ball_lightning 00:01:36 1 Historical accounts 00:02:12 1.1 Great Thunderstorm of Widecombe-in-the-Moor 00:03:36 1.2 The iCatherine and Mary/i 00:04:23 1.3 The iMontague/i 00:05:40 1.4 Georg Richmann 00:06:40 1.5 HMS iWarren Hastings/i 00:07:29 1.6 Ebenezer Cobham Brewer 00:08:08 1.7 Wilfrid de Fonvielle 00:09:58 1.8 Tsar Nicholas II 00:11:53 1.9 Aleister Crowley 00:13:01 1.10 R.C. Jennison 00:14:03 1.11 Other accounts 00:22:45 2 Characteristics 00:26:21 3 Direct measurements of natural ball lightning 00:28:23 4 Laboratory experiments 00:29:35 4.1 Wave-guided microwaves 00:30:05 4.2 Water discharge experiments 00:30:28 4.3 Home microwave oven experiments 00:31:51 4.4 Silicon experiments 00:32:45 5 Proposed scientific explanations 00:33:20 5.1 Vaporized silicon hypothesis 00:34:51 5.2 Electrically charged solid-core model 00:35:39 5.3 Microwave cavity hypothesis 00:36:35 5.4 Soliton hypothesis 00:39:18 5.5 Hydrodynamic vortex ring antisymmetry 00:42:17 5.6 Nanobattery hypothesis 00:42:54 5.7 Black hole hypothesis 00:43:38 5.8 Buoyant plasma hypothesis 00:44:40 5.9 Transcranial magnetic stimulation 00:46:33 5.10 Spinning plasma toroid (ring) 00:47:47 5.11 Rydberg matter concept 00:48:59 5.12 Vacuum hypothesis 00:54:17 5.13 Other hypotheses 00:57:06 6 See also 00:57:37 7 Notes 00:57:46 8 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8464211023342251 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ball lightning is an unexplained and potentially dangerous atmospheric electrical phenomenon. The term refers to reports of luminous, spherical objects that vary from pea-sized to several meters in diameter. Though usually associated with thunderstorms, the phenomenon lasts considerably longer than the split-second flash of a lightning bolt. Two reports from the nineteenth century claim that the ball eventually explodes, leaving behind an odor of sulfur. Until the 1960s, most scientists treated reports of ball lightning skeptically, despite numerous accounts from around the world. Laboratory experiments can produce effects that are visually similar to reports of ball lightning, but how these relate to the natural phenomenon remains unclear.Scientists have proposed many hypotheses about ball lightning over the centuries. Scientific data on natural ball-lightning remains scarce, owing to its infrequency and unpredictability. The presumption of its existence depends on reported public sightings, which have produced somewhat inconsistent findings. Owing to inconsistencies and to the lack of reliable data, the true nature of ball lightning remains unknown. The first ever optical spectrum of what appears to have been a ball-lightning event was published in January 2014, and included a video at high frame-rate.
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