Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in

Views: 50864
nptelhrd

Content Link: https://github.com/mostafa-saad/ArabicCompetitiveProgramming/raw/master/04%20Math/09_Number_Theory_Extended_Euclidean_algorithm.pdf
Content:
- Extended Euclidean algorithm
- Bézout's identity
Problems: UVA(718, 11768, 10104, 10090, 10633, 10673), SRM358-D1-2

Views: 2598
Arabic Competitive Programming

Go to http://www.dashlane.com/minutephysics to download Dashlane for free, and use offer code minutephysics for 10% off Dashlane Premium!
Support MinutePhysics on Patreon! http://www.patreon.com/minutephysics
This video explains Shor’s Algorithm, a way to efficiently factor large pseudoprime integers into their prime factors using a quantum computer. The quantum computation relies on the number-theoretic analysis of the factoring problem via modular arithmetic mod N (where N is the number to be factored), and finding the order or period of a random coprime number mod N. The exponential speedup comes in part from the use of the quantum fast fourier transform which achieves interference among frequencies that are not related to the period (period-finding is the goal of the QFT FFT).
REFERENCES
RSA Numbers (sample large numbers to try factoring)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RSA_numbers
IBM on RSA
https://www.ibm.com/support/knowledgecenter/en/SSB23S1.1.0.13/gtps7/s7pkey.html
Modulo Multiplication Group Tables
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/ModuloMultiplicationGroup.html
Difference of squares factorization
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Difference_of_two_squares
Euclid’s Algorithm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euclideanalgorithm
Rational sieve for factoring
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rational_sieve
General Number field Sieve
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Generalnumberfieldsieve
Scott Aaronson blog post about Shor’s Algorithm
https://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=208
Experimental implementation of Shor’s Algorithm (factoring 15, 21, and 35)
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1903.00768.pdf
Adiabatic Quantum Computation factoring the number 291311
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.08061.pdf
Scott Aaronson course notes
https://www.scottaaronson.com/qclec/
https://www.scottaaronson.com/qclec/combined.pdf
Shor’s Algorithm on Quantiki
https://www.quantiki.org/wiki/shors-factoring-algorithm
TLS And SSL use RSA encryption
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TransportLayerSecurity
Dashlane security whitepaper
https://www.dashlane.com/download/DashlaneSecurityWhitePaperOctober2018.pdf
Link to Patreon Supporters: http://www.minutephysics.com/supporters/
MinutePhysics is on twitter - @minutephysics
And facebook - http://facebook.com/minutephysics
Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in a minute!
Created by Henry Reich

Views: 955499
minutephysics

This tutorial demonstrates how the euclidian algorithm can be used to find the greatest common denominator of two large numbers.
Learn Math Tutorials Bookstore http://amzn.to/1HdY8vm
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Views: 345999
Learn Math Tutorials

RSA Algorithm is the example for Public Key Encryption algorithm.
Here we are supposed to find two keys
1) Public Key which is used at encryption
2) Private Key which is used at decryption
step 1: Select two large Primes P , Q
Step 2: Calculate n=P*Q & O(n) = (P-1)*(Q-1)
Step 3: Assume e and d (Public and Private Key).
Step 4: Encrypt the Plain Text using Public Key e.
Step 5: Decrypt the Cipher Text using Private Key d.

Views: 101860
Sundeep Saradhi Kanthety

This video lecture is produced by IITian S.Saurabh. He is B.Tech from IIT and MS from USA.
How will you find if a number is prime. Can you suggest a randomized algorithm to find if a number is prime.
This channel is an ultimate guide to prepare for job interviews for software engineers, software test engineers, computer scientists, engineering students specially computer science and IT engineers, Master of computer application (MCA) and Bachelor of Computer Application (BCA) students. The content of this channel will help students prepare for C,C++, Java, data structures and algorithms. It also covers courses related to networking and database. This channel can be used by students of NIIT, IGNOU etc too.
tags: "find repeated element", "randomized algorithms","randomized algorithms example","randomized algorithms ppt", "randomized algorithms pdf","repeated element in an array","primality testing fermat","primality testing fermat's little theoram","fermat's theoram primality testing","primality testing using fermat's little theoram"

Views: 14656
saurabhschool

How to solve 17x ≡ 3 (mod 29) using Euclid's Algorithm. If you want to see how Bézout's Identity works, see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9PRPr6J_btM

Views: 211739
Maths with Jay

Using EA and EEA to solve inverse mod.

Views: 413930
Emily Jane

The Euclidean Algorithm is an efficient method for computing the greatest common divisor of two integers. We demonstrate the algorithm with an example.
Recommended age: 12+
Teacher: Michael Harrison
Artist: Katrina de Dios

Views: 67247
Socratica

Viewers like you help make PBS (Thank you 😃) . Support your local PBS Member Station here: https://to.pbs.org/donateinfi
Classical computers struggle to crack modern encryption. But quantum computers using Shor’s Algorithm make short work of RSA cryptography. Find out how.
Tweet at us! @pbsinfinite
Facebook: facebook.com/pbsinfinite series
Email us! pbsinfiniteseries [at] gmail [dot] com
Previous Episode
How to Break Cryptography
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Q3Mrh03Gk
The Mathematics Behind Quantum Computers
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IrbJYsep45E
Additional Resources:
Scott Aaronson's Blog (Great Intro to Shor's Alg.):: http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=208
Shor's Original Paper:: https://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/9508027v2
Lectures on Shor's Algorithm:: https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0010034.pdf
Decrypting secure messages often involves attempting to find the factors that make up extremely large numbers. This process is too time consuming for classical computers but Shor’s Algorithm shows us how Quantum Computers can greatly expedite the process.
Written and Hosted by Kelsey Houston-Edwards
Produced by Rusty Ward
Graphics by Ray Lux
Made by Kornhaber Brown (www.kornhaberbrown.com)
Thanks to Spiros Michalakis for helpful discussions and feedback.
Comments answered by Kelsey:
Neon Bull
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Q3Mrh03Gk&lc=z135uxf5cxenutmxj04cc3swkvm4tpcrxik
Bhargav R
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Q3Mrh03Gk&lc=z13qjjioozbjdrqyz04cevdrtu3ti3y5sq40k
BobC
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=12Q3Mrh03Gk&lc=z12pjpzastylzz2qx04cjtc5jrq2y3yhmlk0k

Views: 185417
PBS Infinite Series

Fermat's Little Theorem Visualized. Introduction to a key result in elementary number theory using a visualization with beads

Views: 91259
Art of the Problem

tell me if any problems or errors as usual

Views: 26060
Matt B

The of and to. A in is I. That it, for you, was with on. As have ... but be they.
RELATED LINKS AND SOURCES BELOW!
http://www.twitter.com/tweetsauce
http://www.instagram.com/electricpants
WordCount.org http://www.wordcount.org/
How many days have you been alive? http://www.beatcanvas.com/daysalive.asp
random letter generator: http://www.dave-reed.com/Nifty/randSeq.html
Dictionary of Obscure Sorrows: https://www.youtube.com/user/obscuresorrows
Word frequency resources:
[lemmatized] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Most_common_words_in_English
http://www.uow.edu.au/~dlee/corpora.htm
http://www.wordfrequency.info
http://www.anc.org/data/anc-second-release/frequency-data/
http://www.titania.bham.ac.uk/docs/
http://www.kilgarriff.co.uk/bnc-readme.html#raw
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Frequency_lists
http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/bncfreq/
[PDF] http://www.wordfrequency.info/files/entries.pdf
[combined Wikipedia and Gutenberg] http://www.monlp.com/2012/04/16/calculating-word-and-n-gram-statistics-from-a-wikipedia-corpora/
http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/files/100k_samples.txt
http://corpus.byu.edu/
http://corpus.leeds.ac.uk/list.html
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ja1_AAAAQBAJ&dq=word+frequency+coca&lr=
http://www.ling.helsinki.fi/kit/2009s/clt231/NLTK/book/ch01-LanguageProcessingAndPython.html
Great Zipf's law papers:
http://colala.bcs.rochester.edu/papers/piantadosi2014zipfs.pdf
http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~ycharles/sign708.pdf
http://arxiv.org/pdf/cond-mat/0412004.pdf
http://www-personal.umich.edu/~mejn/courses/2006/cmplxsys899/powerlaws.pdf
Zipf’s law articles and discussions:
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2002/04/seeing-around-corners/302471/
http://io9.com/the-mysterious-law-that-governs-the-size-of-your-city-1479244159?utm_expid=66866090-48.Ej9760cOTJCPS_Bq4mjoww.0
https://plus.maths.org/content/os/latestnews/may-aug08/food/index
http://judson.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/19/math-and-the-city/?em
https://plus.maths.org/content/mystery-zipf?src=aop
http://www.datasciencecentral.com/profiles/blogs/why-zipf-s-law-explains-so-many-big-data-and-physics-phenomenons
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zipf%27s_law
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f8GrzlnMSm8C&pg=PA62&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
http://arxiv.org/pdf/0802.4393v1.pdf
http://www.pnas.org/content/108/9/3526.full
http://lewisdartnell.com/language_page.htm
http://wugology.com/zipfs-law/
other Zipf’s law PDFs
http://ftp.iza.org/dp3928.pdf
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1402.2965.pdf
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1104.3199.pdf
http://www.lel.ed.ac.uk/~jim/zipfjrh.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2834740/#pone.0009411-Mandelbrot1
http://polymer.bu.edu/hes/articles/pgs02a.pdf
in untranslated language: http://arxiv.org/pdf/0808.2904.pdf
http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~xgabaix/papers/zipf.pdf
http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/papers/ranking/ranking.html
http://statweb.stanford.edu/~owen/courses/306a/ZipfAndGutenberg.pdf
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.0448v3.pdf
http://www.kornai.com/Papers/glotto5.pdf
Zipf’s law slides:
http://www.slideshare.net/guest9fc47a/nlp-new-words
Pareto Principle and related ‘laws’:
http://www.squawkpoint.com/2013/03/pareto-principle/
http://billyshall.com/blog/post/paretos-principle
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pareto_principle
Random typing and Zipf:
http://www.longtail.com/the_long_tail/2006/09/is_zipfs_law_ju.html
health 80/20: http://archive.ahrq.gov/research/findings/factsheets/costs/expriach/expriach1.html
Principle of least effort:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principle_of_least_effort
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satisficing
http://www.pnas.org/content/100/3/788.full.pdf [PDF]
http://csiss.org/classics/content/99
self organized criticality:
http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnsys.2014.00166/full
Hapax Legomenon:
http://campus.albion.edu/english/2011/02/15/hapax-legomenon/
http://www.dailywritingtips.com/is-that-a-hapax-legomenon/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hapax_legomenon
[PDF] http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/J10-4003
http://www.wired.com/2012/01/hapax-legomena-and-zipfs-law/
http://oed.hertford.ox.ac.uk/main/content/view/402/450/index.html#_ftn1
http://oed.hertford.ox.ac.uk/main/content/view/36/166/index.html
Learning curve: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_curve
Forgetting curve:
http://www.trainingindustry.com/wiki/entries/forgetting-curve.aspx
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forgetting_curve
Experience curve effects: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experience_curve_effects
Forgetting
and zipf's law: http://act-r.psy.cmu.edu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/37JRA_LS_PS_1991.pdf
http://public.psych.iastate.edu/shacarp/Wixted_Carpenter_2007.pdf
http://marshalljonesjr.com/youll-remember-less-than-001-of-your-life/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forgetting
https://www.reddit.com/r/Showerthoughts/comments/3gu9qk/it_only_takes_three_generations_for_you_to_be/
music from:
http://www.youtube.com/jakechudnow
http://www.audionetwork.com

Views: 13847238
Vsauce

Once you know how to solve diophantine equations with a single variable, the next step in complexity is to consider equations with two variables. The simplest such equations are linear and take the form ax+by=c. Before we solve this equation generally, we need a preliminary result. We show that you can solve the equation ax+by=GCD(a,b) by performing the Euclidean algorithm, and then reverse-substituting to arrive at a single solution.
Subject: Elementary Number Theory
Teacher: Michael Harrison

Views: 96181
Socratica

For this HackerRank problem, we use the Euclid's algorithm to find the GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) of two numbers. The problem is based on the scene in Die Hard 3.0, where John McClane has to solve a mathematical problem based on this to save the city!
The GCD of two given numbers is defined as the largest possible number which divides both the numbers with no remainder. The GCD of a number is also sometimes called Highest Common Factor.
We take sample test cases to see how this problem can be solved, and then move to a proof for a general case.
Make sure to check out the other two videos on the proof of the algorithm (https://youtu.be/B5HKW99AvV0) and the code (https://youtu.be/80pOI0_BXyk)!
Code:
https://github.com/gkcs/Competitive-Programming/blob/master/src/main/java/main/java/videos/GCD.java
HackerRank Problem:
https://www.hackerrank.com/challenges/die-hard-3/
References:
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-042j-mathematics-for-computer-science-fall-2010/readings/MIT6_042JF10_chap04.pdf
https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/modarithmetic/a/the-euclidean-algorithm
https://brilliant.org/wiki/greatest-common-divisor/

Views: 3157
Gaurav Sen

Learn How to calculate a power b modulus n i.e (a ^ b mod n) using Fast exponential modular arithmetic technique!!
Follow us on : http://aptitudefordummies.wordpress.com
Follow us in Fb : https://www.facebook.com/aptitudedummies
Google+ : [email protected]

Views: 100955
Aptitude for dummies

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Password Encryption.java
JAVA ENCRYPTION/DECRYPTION PROGRAM HELP
Encrypting and Decrypting Java
Cryptography using Java in Netbeans IDE
Cryptography using Java in Netbeans IDE
Java Cryptography APIs
Cryptography
Encrypting and Decrypting a text file in java

Views: 104871
ProgrammingKnowledge

The Euclid's algorithm is widely used to find the GCD, short for Greatest Common Factor, of numbers. It uses interesting mathematical properties of division and remainders to find the answer.
Here we prove the GCD algorithm once again to bring clarity to Euclid's method of dividing the larger number by the smaller one and setting the new parameters to the smaller and remaining number.
Check out these videos on the code for the algorithm (https://youtu.be/80pOI0_BXyk) and an exciting question (https://youtu.be/D-DYtUmRMa4)!
Code:
https://github.com/gkcs/Competitive-Programming/blob/master/src/main/java/main/java/videos/GCD.java
Codechef Problem:
https://www.codechef.com/problems/GCDQ
References:
https://brilliant.org/wiki/greatest-common-divisor/
https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/modarithmetic/a/the-euclidean-algorithm
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-042j-mathematics-for-computer-science-fall-2010/readings/MIT6_042JF10_chap04.pdf

Views: 1939
Gaurav Sen

This video presents a recent breakthrough called the Sparse Fourier Transform (SFT). This algorithm yields an exponential speed-up over the celebrated Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) when asked to extract a small number of dominant Fourier coefficients. The video features Assistant Professor Michael Kapralov of the IC School at EPFL.
http://theory.epfl.ch/kapralov/
Hassanieh, Indyk, Katabi and Price (2012). Nearly Optimal Sparse Fourier Transfo
https://arxiv.org/pdf/1201.2501.pdf
Piotre Indyk and MIchael Kapralov (2014). Sample-Optimal Fourier Sampling in Any Constant Dimension
http://theory.epfl.ch/kapralov/papers/ft-hd-part1.pdf

Views: 9301
ZettaBytes, EPFL

Check out these famous uncracked codes that still exist! From secret riddles to unsolved mysteries, this top 10 list contains cryptography that's still unexplained today!
Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB
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Watch our "REAL Evidence That Aliens EXIST!" video here: https://youtu.be/dtwJT2eilx0
10. Chinese Gold Bar Cipher
In 1933, General Wang in Shanghai, China, allegedly received seven gold bars. These gold bars appear to represent metal certificates related to a bank deposit with a U.S. Bank. The gold bars themselves have pictures, Chinese writing, some form of script writing, and cryptograms in Latin letters.
Not surprisingly, experts debate concerning the validity of the claim for the deposit. It may help to resolve the dispute if someone can decipher the cryptograms on the bars. Someone translated the Chinese writing, which discusses a transaction in excess of $300,000,000. It also refers to these gold bars, which weigh a total of 1.8 kilograms. The rest remains a mystery.
9. D’agapeyeff Cipher
The D’Agapeyeff cipher is an as-yet unbroken cipher that appears in the first edition of Codes and Ciphers, an elementary book on cryptography published by the Russian-born English cartographer Alexander D’Agapeyeff in 1939. Offered as a “challenge cipher” at the end of the book, it was not included in later editions. D’Agapeyeff supposedly admitted later to having forgotten how he had encrypted it.
Some argue that the failure of all attempts at decryption is due to D’Agapeyeff incorrectly encrypting the original text. However, it has also been argued that the cipher may still be successfully attacked using computational methods such as genetic algorithms. Whatever those are.
8. The Beale Ciphers
If this next one isn’t a hoax then the person who solves it could become very, very rich.
This question of authenticity has bothered cryptoanalysts ever since these ciphers first appeared in an 1885 pamphlet called The Beale Papers, which recounts a fantastic story of buried treasure. According to the pamphlet, a man named Thomas Jefferson Beale, a man no one has proven even existed, discovered gold during an 1816 expedition into the American West. The treasure, as the story goes, was then transported to Bedford County, Virginia, and buried.
The gold's secret location was allegedly provided by three cryptograms, of which one was already cracked. Unfortunately, the cracked code only detailed the type of treasure there and not a specific location.
To find out anything more specific would involve cracking the two other ciphers. The problem is that figuring it out requires comparing them to unknown historical texts. The decrypted cipher, for example, used the Declaration of Independence. The first number, 115, corresponds with the first letter of the 115th word in the Declaration: "instituted." That means 115 stands for "I." So what are the translation texts for the other two ciphers? No one knows, and they may very well not exist at all. There are also questions over whether the other ciphers may just be unintelligible, as if the whole thing was made up by the pamphlet's author decades after the gold was supposed to have been discovered.
7. Dorabella
In 1897, a 40-year-old composer named Edward Elgar sent an encrypted letter to 23-year-old Dora Penny, the stepdaughter of one of his friends. Why he sent it is part of the mystery and can only be answered if anyone ever cracks the code.
To figure it out would involve deciphering 87 characters all made of strings of semi-circles oriented in different directions. Attempts at translating the cipher yielded a message just short of gibberish. Experts say that shorter ciphers are always harder to solve.
Another theory has it that the code is an example of a distinct private language shared only between Penny and Elgar. If that's the case, then solving it may be simply impossible, since no one but them would understand the references.
In 2016, a police officer in Cleveland believes he’s cracked at least part of the code, revealing a line of melody. Inspector Mark Pitt read 100 books on the Dorabella Cipher; he hopes to write one on his discoveries. Whether or not that’s really the meaning, though, remains to be seen.
Origins Explained is the place to be to find all the answers to your questions, from mysterious events and unsolved mysteries to everything there is to know about the world and its amazing animals!

Views: 1348333
Origins Explained

Hashing Techniques Hash Function, Types of Hashing Techniques in Hindi and English
* Direct Hashing
* Modulo-Division Hashing
* Mid-Square Hashing
* Folding Hashing - Fold-Shift Hashing and Fold Boundary Hashing
* PseudoRandom Hashing
* Subtraction Hashing
For Students of B.Tech, B.E, MCA, BCA, B.Sc., M.Sc., Courses - As Per IP University Syllabus and Other Engineering Courses

Views: 264259
Easy Engineering Classes

Hi friends, if you want free handmade notes pdf from any of the videos of our channel please mail us at [email protected]
******************************************************************
In this video i have explained how to solve Extended Euclid Algorithm by Back Substitution Method in Cryptography. It is very important algorithm in Cryptography and is used widely. It will be helpful for you guys to solve other problems easily.
******************************************************************
If you have not watched our other videos please go to the following link
1. Extended Euclid Algorithm by Tabular Method in Cryptography
Part 1 https://youtu.be/Q69FuCVyx5o
2. Extended Euclid Algorithm by Back Substitution Method in
Cryptography Part 2 https://youtu.be/WbtXliZHX4U
3. Affine Cipher Encryption in Cryptography Part 1
https://youtu.be/KlPC_Wrntjk
4. Affine Cipher Decryption in Cryptography Part 2
https://youtu.be/HBonRKrF2aw
5. Introduction to Cryptography and Security Attacks
https://youtu.be/HSIVb3nJ8iQ
******************************************************************
please don't forget to like, share and subscribe EasyStudyClasses for more videos. Also please share your views in comment section.
Thank You for watching.

Views: 107
EasyStudyClasses

Modern day encryption is performed in two different ways. Check out http://YouTube.com/ITFreeTraining or http://itfreetraining.com for more of our always free training videos. Using the same key or using a pair of keys called the public and private keys. This video looks at how these systems work and how they can be used together to perform encryption.
Download the PDF handout
http://itfreetraining.com/Handouts/Ce...
Encryption Types
Encryption is the process of scrambling data so it cannot be read without a decryption key. Encryption prevents data being read by a 3rd party if it is intercepted by a 3rd party. The two encryption methods that are used today are symmetric and public key encryption.
Symmetric Key
Symmetric key encryption uses the same key to encrypt data as decrypt data. This is generally quite fast when compared with public key encryption. In order to protect the data, the key needs to be secured. If a 3rd party was able to gain access to the key, they could decrypt any data that was encrypt with that data. For this reason, a secure channel is required to transfer the key if you need to transfer data between two points. For example, if you encrypted data on a CD and mail it to another party, the key must also be transferred to the second party so that they can decrypt the data. This is often done using e-mail or the telephone. In a lot of cases, sending the data using one method and the key using another method is enough to protect the data as an attacker would need to get both in order to decrypt the data.
Public Key Encryption
This method of encryption uses two keys. One key is used to encrypt data and the other key is used to decrypt data. The advantage of this is that the public key can be downloaded by anyone. Anyone with the public key can encrypt data that can only be decrypted using a private key. This means the public key does not need to be secured. The private key does need to be keep in a safe place. The advantage of using such a system is the private key is not required by the other party to perform encryption. Since the private key does not need to be transferred to the second party there is no risk of the private key being intercepted by a 3rd party. Public Key encryption is slower when compared with symmetric key so it is not always suitable for every application. The math used is complex but to put it simply it uses the modulus or remainder operator. For example, if you wanted to solve X mod 5 = 2, the possible solutions would be 2, 7, 12 and so on. The private key provides additional information which allows the problem to be solved easily. The math is more complex and uses much larger numbers than this but basically public and private key encryption rely on the modulus operator to work.
Combing The Two
There are two reasons you want to combine the two. The first is that often communication will be broken into two steps. Key exchange and data exchange. For key exchange, to protect the key used in data exchange it is often encrypted using public key encryption. Although slower than symmetric key encryption, this method ensures the key cannot accessed by a 3rd party while being transferred. Since the key has been transferred using a secure channel, a symmetric key can be used for data exchange. In some cases, data exchange may be done using public key encryption. If this is the case, often the data exchange will be done using a small key size to reduce the processing time.
The second reason that both may be used is when a symmetric key is used and the key needs to be provided to multiple users. For example, if you are using encryption file system (EFS) this allows multiple users to access the same file, which includes recovery users. In order to make this possible, multiple copies of the same key are stored in the file and protected from being read by encrypting it with the public key of each user that requires access.
References
"Public-key cryptography" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-k...
"Encryption" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encryption

Views: 496327
itfreetraining

Link to My Blog:- http://techdjdey.blogspot.in/
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what is elementary cryptography

Views: 2482
Dhrubajyoti Dey

This is the code for the Euclid's Algorithm to find the GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) of two numbers. The code is written in Java. There are three variations shown here:
1) Recursive GCD
2) Iterative GCD
3) Binary GCD
The GCD of two given numbers is defined as the largest possible number which divides both the numbers with no remainder. The GCD of a number is also sometimes called Highest Common Factor.
Do check out the other two videos on the proof of the algorithm (https://youtu.be/B5HKW99AvV0) and an exciting question (https://youtu.be/D-DYtUmRMa4)!
Code:
https://github.com/gkcs/Competitive-Programming/blob/master/src/main/java/main/java/videos/GCD.java
Codechef Problem:
https://www.codechef.com/problems/GCDQ
References:
https://brilliant.org/wiki/greatest-common-divisor/
https://www.khanacademy.org/computing/computer-science/cryptography/modarithmetic/a/the-euclidean-algorithm
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-042j-mathematics-for-computer-science-fall-2010/readings/MIT6_042JF10_chap04.pdf

Views: 3757
Gaurav Sen

May 30, 2000
Professor Knuth is the Professor Emeritus at Stanford University. Dr. Knuth's classic programming texts include his seminal work The Art of Computer Programming, Volumes 1-3, widely considered to be among the best scientific writings of the century.

Views: 6042
stanfordonline

Views: 88899
GVSUmath

GET THE NEXT COURSE HERE: https://www.udemy.com/computational-thinking-in-python/?couponCode=90_OFF
Its called Computational Thinking in Python
Python program files and PDF manuals available FREE! at: http://techxellent.courses/p/python-fundamentals
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COURSE DESCRIPTION:
What is Python and why is it important?
Python is an interpreted text based general purpose programming language, which is a key requisite of the 7-10 Digital Technologies Curriculum. Python is also the only professional programming language that was designed with beginners in mind, it is intuitive and easy to use
What are the student outcomes?
Students learn about core concepts of programming: branching, iteration and functions. They apply these to create four applications which perform the following:
Simulation of an intelligent conversation
User Authentication using passwords and/or secret questions
A game where user guesses a number and the program informs the user of his accuracy over time
A program that encrypts and decrypts messages using the Caesar Cypher
What is the educational approach of the course?
The course explicitly teaches the concepts such as loops or functions, performing several examples in the interactive shell. Then these concepts are employed to create a computer program these programs progress in their level of difficulty, eventually performing complex tasks like encryption Beyond the concepts and applications students will also learn the following skills:
Creating algorithms which can be represented in the form of flowcharts, which are in turn easy to translate to code.
Building programs in separate stages each of which can be tested
Getting insight and understanding from error messages
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Views: 760
Robotix

The ``cryptography`` library emerged in 2014 with the goal of
becoming Python's "cryptographic standard library". It is designed
to be easy to use but flexible, exposing a *recipes* layer for
common use cases, and a *hazmat* layer that provides crypto
primitives but demands users know what they're doing in order to use
them properly.
This talk will explain the motivations and goals of the
``cryptography`` library, take a tour of its features and discuss
its implementation. ``cryptography`` will be compared to some other
popular and emerging crypto libraries. Finally, we will examine
some real-world use of the library.
Audience members should have a passing familiarity with cryptography
(e.g. know the differences between hashing and encryption, or public
key and private key crypto) to get the most out of this talk.
PyCon Australia is the national conference for users of the Python Programming Language. In 2015, we're heading to Brisbane to bring together students, enthusiasts, and professionals with a love of Python from around Australia, and all around the World.
July 31-August 4, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

Views: 571
PyCon Australia

This video shows that basic concept of Cyclic Redundancy Check(CRC) which it explains with the help of an example
Thank you guys for watching. If you liked it please leave a comment below it really helps to keep m going!:)

Views: 382405
The BootStrappers

The Sieve of Eratosthenes: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sieve_of_Eratosthenes
Trial division: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_division
For an introduction to complexity and big-O, big-Ω notation see: https://dionyziz.com/complexity/
Soup's number theory book: http://www.shoup.net/ntb/ntb-v2.pdf
This is a classical number theory algorithm implementation in Python.
The Sieve of Eratosthenes and trial division are the simplest way of determining whether a number is a prime, a primality test. This is an exponential way of checking for primality, as the complexity is Ω(sqrt(n)).
Primality testing has many applications including cryptography.
If you liked this video, please thumbs up and subscribe. This is one of my first videos. Please leave feedback about what you think I can improve and what other topics you would like to see.
I've just created a Patreon where you can buy me a cup of coffee. Thanks so much for supporting me! https://www.patreon.com/dionyziz

Views: 2209
dionyziz

This talk discards hand-wavy pop-science metaphors and answers a simple question: from a computer science perspective, how can a quantum computer outperform a classical computer? Attendees will learn the following:
- Representing computation with basic linear algebra (matrices and vectors)
- The computational workings of qbits, superposition, and quantum logic gates
- Solving the Deutsch oracle problem: the simplest problem where a quantum computer outperforms classical methods
- Bonus topics: quantum entanglement and teleportation
The talk concludes with a live demonstration of quantum entanglement on a real-world quantum computer, and a demo of the Deutsch oracle problem implemented in Q# with the Microsoft Quantum Development Kit. This talk assumes no prerequisite knowledge, although comfort with basic linear algebra (matrices, vectors, matrix multiplication) will ease understanding.
See more at https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/video/quantum-computing-computer-scientists/

Views: 202578
Microsoft Research

This episode is brought to you by Squarespace: http://www.squarespace.com/physicsgirl
With recent high-profile security decryption cases, encryption is more important than ever. Much of your browser usage and your smartphone data is encrypted. But what does that process actually entail? And when computers get smarter and faster due to advances in quantum physics, how will encryption keep up?
http://physicsgirl.org/
http://twitter.com/thephysicsgirl
http://facebook.com/thephysicsgirl
http://instagram.com/thephysicsgirl
http://physicsgirl.org/
Help us translate our videos! http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_cs_panel?c=UC7DdEm33SyaTDtWYGO2CwdA&tab=2
Creator/Editor: Dianna Cowern
Writer: Sophia Chen
Animator: Kyle Norby
Special thanks to Nathan Lysne
Source:
http://gva.noekeon.org/QCandSKD/QCand...
http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/n...
https://epic.org/crypto/export_contro...
http://fas.org/irp/offdocs/eo_crypt_9...
Music: APM and YouTube

Views: 278953
Physics Girl

Bitcoin explained from the viewpoint of inventing your own cryptocurrency.
Home page: https://www.3blue1brown.com/
Brought to you by you: http://3b1b.co/btc-thanks
And by Protocol Labs: https://protocol.ai/join/
Some people have asked if this channel accepts contributions in cryptocurrency form. Indeed!
http://3b1b.co/crypto
2^256 video: https://youtu.be/S9JGmA5_unY
Music by Vincent Rubinetti: https://soundcloud.com/vincerubinetti/heartbeat
Here are a few other resources I'd recommend:
Original Bitcoin paper: https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf
Block explorer: https://blockexplorer.com/
Blog post by Michael Nielsen: https://goo.gl/BW1RV3
(This is particularly good for understanding the details of what transactions look like, which is something this video did not cover)
Video by CuriousInventor: https://youtu.be/Lx9zgZCMqXE
Video by Anders Brownworth: https://youtu.be/_160oMzblY8
Ethereum white paper: https://goo.gl/XXZddT
------------------
Animations largely made using manim, a scrappy open source python library. https://github.com/3b1b/manim
If you want to check it out, I feel compelled to warn you that it's not the most well-documented tool, and has many other quirks you might expect in a library someone wrote with only their own use in mind.
Music by Vincent Rubinetti.
Download the music on Bandcamp:
https://vincerubinetti.bandcamp.com/album/the-music-of-3blue1brown
Stream the music on Spotify:
https://open.spotify.com/album/1dVyjwS8FBqXhRunaG5W5u
If you want to contribute translated subtitles or to help review those that have already been made by others and need approval, you can click the gear icon in the video and go to subtitles/cc, then "add subtitles/cc". I really appreciate those who do this, as it helps make the lessons accessible to more people.
------------------
3blue1brown is a channel about animating math, in all senses of the word animate. And you know the drill with YouTube, if you want to stay posted on new videos, subscribe, and click the bell to receive notifications (if you're into that).
If you are new to this channel and want to see more, a good place to start is this playlist: http://3b1b.co/recommended
Various social media stuffs:
Website: https://www.3blue1brown.com
Twitter: https://twitter.com/3Blue1Brown
Patreon: https://patreon.com/3blue1brown
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/3blue1brown
Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/3Blue1Brown

Views: 2545238
3Blue1Brown

Go to https://Brilliant.org/SciShow to get 20% off of an annual Premium subscription!
Randomness is important for all kinds of things, from science to security, but to generate true randomness, engineers have turned to some pretty odd tricks!
Hosted by: Stefan Chin
Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
----------
Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
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Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Lazarus G, Sam Lutfi, D.A. Noe, الخليفي سلطان, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Patrick D. Ashmore, charles george, Kevin Bealer, Chris Peters
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Sources:
https://www.wired.com/story/cloudflare-lava-lamps-protect-from-hackers/
https://sploid.gizmodo.com/one-of-the-secrets-guarding-the-secure-internet-is-a-wa-1820188866
https://www.fastcompany.com/90137157/the-hardest-working-office-design-in-america-encrypts-your-data-with-lava-lamps
https://www.nytimes.com/2001/06/12/science/connoisseurs-of-chaos-offer-a-valuable-product-randomness.html
https://blog.cloudflare.com/why-randomness-matters/
https://www.design-reuse.com/articles/27050/true-randomness-in-cryptography.html
https://www.random.org/randomness/
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/electrical-engineering-and-computer-science/6-856j-randomized-algorithms-fall-2002/lecture-notes/
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26300-7_3
https://www.maa.org/sites/default/files/pdf/upload_library/22/Ford/Volchan46-63.pdf
https://nvlpubs.nist.gov/nistpubs/Legacy/SP/nistspecialpublication800-22r1a.pdf
http://www.iro.umontreal.ca/~simardr/testu01/guideshorttestu01.pdf
https://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1418/index2.html
https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/papers/2008/P113.pdf
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/secauthn/tls-handshake-protocol
https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2246#page-47
https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/trafficanalysistools/tat_vol3/vol3_guidelines.pdf
https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/aeronautics-and-astronautics/16-36-communication-systems-engineering-spring-2009/lecture-notes/MIT16_36s09_lec21_22.pdf
https://telescoper.wordpress.com/2009/04/04/points-and-poisson-davril/
https://auto.howstuffworks.com/remote-entry2.htm
https://web.archive.org/web/20070315010555/https://cigital.com/papers/download/developer_gambling.php
Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Middle-square_method.svg
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zdW6nTNWbkc
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sun-crypto-accelerator-1000.jpg

Views: 418254
SciShow

Coding Theory by Dr. Andrew Thangaraj, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, IIT Madras. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in

Views: 26849
nptelhrd

Get your first two months of CuriosityStream free by going to http://curiositystream.com/crashcourse and using the promo code “crashcourse”. So last episode we talked about some basic file formats, but what we didn’t talk about is compression. Often files are way too large to be easily stored on hard drives or transferred over the Internet - the solution, unsurprisingly, is to make them smaller. Today, we’re going to talk about lossless compression, which will give you the exact same thing when reassembled, as well as lossy compression, which uses the limitations of human perception to remove less important data. From listening to music and sharing photos, to talking on the phone and even streaming this video right now the ways we use the Internet and our computing devices just wouldn’t be possible without the help of compression.
Pre-order our limited edition Crash Course: Computer Science Floppy Disk Coasters here!
https://store.dftba.com/products/computer-science-coasters
Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios
Want to know more about Carrie Anne?
https://about.me/carrieannephilbin
The Latest from PBS Digital Studios: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL1mtdjDVOoOqJzeaJAV15Tq0tZ1vKj7ZV
Want to find Crash Course elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook - https://www.facebook.com/YouTubeCrash...
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Tumblr - http://thecrashcourse.tumblr.com
Support Crash Course on Patreon: http://patreon.com/crashcourse
CC Kids: http://www.youtube.com/crashcoursekids

Views: 191263
CrashCourse

In this video we look at substitution ciphers: how they are made and how to break them.

Views: 64876
Pico Cetef

Understand AES algorithm, the easy way using MS Excel.
Download "AESKeys.xlsx" from the http://netzts.in/card-reconciliation-downloads/cryptography-blog-downloads/
Download "NIST.FIPS.197.pdf" from https://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips listed under number 197
Watch our 5 part DES Algorithm videos from the links given below:
1. DES Algorithm Part-1 preliminaries of Encryption : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JT91GJs1cjA
2. DES Algorithm - Part 2 - The KEYs : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mn5y93zxMs0
3. DES Algorithm - Part 3 – Encryption : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lzi6W1XGKeA
4. DES Algorithm - Part 4 – Decryption : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bj47jX1i4-M
5. DES Algorithm - Part 5 - 3DES : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CvpuGr5kERQ

Views: 4721
Nandakumar Ramakrishnan

In this video we cover basic terminology in cryptography, including what is a ciphertext, plaintext, keys, public key crypto, and private key crypto.

Views: 284628
Pico Cetef

This video is an example of using the Pohlig-Hellman Algorithm to solve a discrete log problem.

Views: 12414
Theoretically

Cryptography and Network Security by Prof. D. Mukhopadhyay, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, IIT Kharagpur. For more details on NPTEL visit http://nptel.iitm.ac.in

Views: 31142
nptelhrd

В этом ролике мы разберемся, в чем заключается Гипотеза Римана — одна из семи математических проблем тысячелетия!
ЗАДАЧНИК КО ВСЕМ РОЛИКАМ: https://vk.com/wall-135395111_8104
МОИ КУРСЫ: https://vk.com/market-135395111
УСКОРИТЬ ПРОЦЕСС СОЗДАНИЯ НОВОГО ВИДЕО: http://www.donationalerts.ru/r/wildmathing
VK: https://vk.com/wildmathing
Кто-то ждал нового ролика с высшей математикой, кто-то — с занимательной, кто-то жаждет материала посложней, кто-то — полегче . Уверен, этот ролик будет полезен и интересен всем: от элементарной математики мы дойдем до открытой проблемы тысячелетия — гипотезы Римана!
Уровень 1. Простые числа — 0:05
Уровень 2. ТРПЧ — 1:30
Уровень 3. 1859 — 3:09
Уровень 4. Гипотеза Римана — 4:32
Уровень 5. Дзета-функция Римана — 5:17
Уровень 6. Смекалистый друг —6:51
Уровень 7. Аналитическое продолжение — 7:39
UPD. На 2:23 гипотеза Гаусса и Лежандра, конечно же, сразу состояла в асимптотическом поведении функции π(x)~x/lnx (x → oo). То, что равенство не выполнено очевидно для того же примера из видео для x=100.
Фразу на 3:37 тоже следует подправить. Конечно же, речь идет о том, что n пробегает натуральные числа, а сигма суммирует все обратные числа к n^s.
РЕКОМЕНДУЕМАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА И ПОЛЕЗНЫЕ РЕСУРСЫ
1. Простая одержимость: https://www.rulit.me/books/prostaya-oderzhimost-bernhard-riman-i-velichajshaya-nereshennaya-problema-v-matematike-read-229072-1.html
2. ТРПЧ: https://www.mccme.ru/free-books/dubna/balazard.pdf
3. Проблемы Гильберта: https://www.mccme.ru/free-books/mmmf-lectures/book.2.pdf
4. Дзета-функция: https://www.mccme.ru/dubna/2011/notes/fedorov-zeta.pdf
5. Очень хорошая полноформатная лекция о гипотезе Римана: https://youtu.be/xGXdIcRCDG8
6. Доказательство Атьи: https://vk.com/wall-135395111_8390
7. Видео о гипотезе Римана от Макара Светлого: https://youtu.be/8fjxU0wMmaQ
8. Институт Клэя: http://www.claymath.org
Подборки сопутствующих материалов:
https://vk.com/wall-135395111_8651
https://vk.com/wall-135395111_8639
БОЛЬШЕ РОЛИКОВ ОБ ИНТЕРЕСНОЙ МАТЕМАТИКЕ
1. Самая красивая формула в математике: https://youtu.be/Rgdc6_AmDzg
2. Что больше: e^π или π^e? https://youtu.be/sCvh80kqFZg
3. Как извлекать корни в столбик? https://youtu.be/2cn0Jy5uRQ0
4. Как пользоваться логарифмической линейкой? https://youtu.be/8MtMZv6Uluc
5. О комплексных числах и не только: https://youtu.be/NFZTjsQ5il0
#Математика #Наука #Научпоп

Views: 49530
Wild Mathing

We do a question on the Euclidean Algorithm and then tackle a proof about GCDs.
LIKE AND SHARE THE VIDEO IF IT HELPED!
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Hello, welcome to TheTrevTutor. I'm here to help you learn your college courses in an easy, efficient manner. If you like what you see, feel free to subscribe and follow me for updates. If you have any questions, leave them below. I try to answer as many questions as possible. If something isn't quite clear or needs more explanation, I can easily make additional videos to satisfy your need for knowledge and understanding.

Views: 13195
TheTrevTutor

An animated attempt of explaining the Playfair cipher. This tutorial includes rules of the cipher followed by an example to clear things up. This was a part of my final year project to create a learning aid. I decided to upload this so the animation won't go to waste. All feedbacks welcome.
Special thanks to Olivia Beck for creating the background image

Views: 185989
Kenny Luminko

When learning about groups, it’s helpful to look at group multiplication tables. Sometimes called Cayley Tables, these tell you everything you need to know to analyze and work with small groups. It’s even possible to use these tables to systematically find all groups of small order!
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We recommend the following textbooks:
Dummit & Foote, Abstract Algebra 3rd Edition
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Milne, Algebra Course Notes (available free online)
http://www.jmilne.org/math/CourseNotes/index.html
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Teaching Assistant: Liliana de Castro
Written & Directed by Michael Harrison
Produced by Kimberly Hatch Harrison

Views: 148522
Socratica

What is the fewest number of moves which can solve any Rubik's Cube? It's God's Number.
More links & stuff in full description below ↓↓↓
See our full series of Rubik's Cube videos at: http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLt5AfwLFPxWJNAdHv8TUCOmj7iKqyHZeg
This video features Matt Parker, James Grime and Katie Steckles.
More about Matt's record attempt and those solving helpers at this website: http://www.depauluk.org/supportus/getinvolved/our-initiatives/rubiks/
NUMBERPHILE
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Numberphile

For slides, a problem set and more on learning cryptography, visit www.crypto-textbook.com.
The book chapter "Introduction" for this video is also available for free at the website (click "Sample Chapter").

Views: 454921
Introduction to Cryptography by Christof Paar

Bonus Features: http://www.hiddensecretsofmoney.com Today, mankind stands at a crossroads, and the path that humanity chooses may have a greater impact on our freedom and prosperity than any event in history. In 2008 a new technology was introduced that is so important that its destiny, and the destiny of mankind are inextricably linked. It is so powerful that if captured and controlled, it could enslave all of humanity. But if allowed to remain free and flourish - it could foster unimaginable levels of peace and prosperity. It has the power to replace all financial systems globally, to supplant ninety percent of Wall St, and to provide some functions of government. It has no agenda. It's always fair and impartial. It can not be manipulated, subverted, corrupted or cheated. And - it inverts the power structure and places control of one's destiny in the hands of the individual. In the future, when we look back at the 2.6 million-year timeline of human development and the major turning points that led to modern civilization - the creation of farming, the domestication of animals, the invention of the wheel, the harnessing of electricity and the splitting of the atom - the sixty year development of computers, the internet and this new technology will be looked upon as a single event...a turning point that will change the course of human history. It's called Full Consensus Distibuted Ledger Technology, and so far its major use has been for cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin....but its potential goes far, far beyond that.
The Crypto Revolution: From Bitcoin to Hashgraph is our latest episode of Hidden Secrets of Money. It’s about the evolution of cryptocurrencies and full consensus distributed ledger technology, and how they will change our world. I believe that this video is by far the easiest way for the average person to gain an understanding of what cryptocurrencies are and how they work, but more importantly, the immense power of full consensus distributed ledger technology and the impact it will have on our daily lives.
I have an absolute passion for monetary history and economics, and I love teaching them. Cryptocurrencies are our future, and there is no escaping it… this is the way everything will be done from now on. But, we now stand at a crucial turning point in history. Full consensus ledgers such as Blockchain and Hashgraph have the power to enslave us, or free us… it all depends on how we choose to use them. If we choose to support centralized versions issued by governments and the financial sector we will be granting them more control over our daily lives. Politicians and bureaucrats will be able raise taxes instantly, whenever they want, on every dollar you make as you make them, and every dollar you spend as you spend them. If they think the economy needs stimulating they'll be able to enforce huge negative interest rates, effectively punishing you for not spending everything you earn before you earn it. They'll be able to decide where you can go and where you can’t, what you can buy and what you can’t, and what you can do and whatever they decide you can’t do… and if they don't like you, they can just disconnect you from the monetary system.
So, will the monetary system become fully distributed and help to free mankind, or will it be centralized and enslave us? The choice is in front of us right now, and our decisions will create our future. I believe that this will be a binary outcome, there is no middle ground, it will either be one future or the other. The question is, will it be the future we want? Or the future they want?
I’m a precious metals dealer and one thing I’ve learned is that gold, silver, and now free market decentralized cryptocurrencies, represent freedom. Because of this knowledge I started investing in crypto currencies long ago and also became one of the first precious metals dealers to accept bitcoin as payment for gold and silver.
I would really appreciate it if you could share this video with everyone you know. I think it’s very important that as many people as possible find out about the changes to the global monetary system that are happening right now… nothing will affect us more, and everyone’s future depends on it.
Thanks, Mike
If you enjoyed watching this video, be sure to pick up a free copy of Mike's bestselling book, Guide to Investing in Gold & Silver: https://goldsilver.com/buy-online/investing-in-gold-and-silver/
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Views: 839790
GoldSilver (w/ Mike Maloney)