What is SKIN FLORA? What does SKIN FLORA mean? SKIN FLORA meaning - SKIN FLORA definition - SKIN FLORA explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The term skin flora (also commonly referred to as skin microbiome) refers to the microorganisms which reside on the skin; typically human skin. Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1000 species upon human skin from 19 phyla. Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of hair follicles. Skin flora is usually non-pathogenic, and either commensal (are not harmful to their host) or mutualistic (offer a benefit). The benefits bacteria can offer include preventing transient pathogenic organisms from colonizing the skin surface, either by competing for nutrients, secreting chemicals against them, or stimulating the skin's immune system. However, resident microbes can cause skin diseases and enter the blood system, creating life-threatening diseases, particularly in immunosuppressed people. A major non-human skin flora is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid and non-hyphal zoosporic fungus that causes chytridiomycosis, an infectious disease thought to be responsible for the decline in amphibian populations.
Views: 2521 The Audiopedia
Hello Viewers !!! My Name Is Kavindu Lakmal , Medical Laboratory Science Student From University Of Peradeniya. I hope this video will helpful for your studies & Knowledge ... Enjoy it ... Don't Forget to subscribe me ... You can update with more new videos .... Please Comment your ideas about Video .... ***********************Join With Us ****************************** For More Knowlegeful Videos & Photos ... Like FB Page :- https://www.facebook.com/AladdinCreat... Join Our FB Group :- https://www.facebook.com/groups/52413... Follow Us On Instagram :- https://www.instagram.com/laboratory_... ****************************** HELP ME !!! *********************** I Love to make this like videos Continuously …. But everything need some money , So your little donation I really appreciate . Your just 1$ donation help to design many more videos … Become a Patron - https://www.patreon.com/user?u=4259366 ******************************************************************** Not Only That , Need To Design this Like Video For You Or Any Video Editing Help ??? Contact me ... [email protected] Skype Name - kavindu.lakmal11 Thank You #AladdinCreations #MedicalLaboratoeyScienceVideos #Microbiology #NormalFlora #Micro #Bacteriology ******************************************************************** Key Words :- Normal Flora,Flora,Mirobiology,Bacteria,Bacteria in Body,bacteria impotance,Harmless bacteria,What is Normal flora,microbiology,micro,bacteriology,Bacteriology videos,normal microflora of human body,biology education,opportunistic pathogen,normal flora microbiology,normal flora lecture,normal flora of the human body,normal flora of the skin,normal flora bacteria,biology educational videos,opportunistic pathogens,aladdin creations
Views: 25277 Aladdin Creations
The microbiota as instructor and arbiter of immune responses in health and disease Air date: Wednesday, February 22, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:07:59 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The vertebrate intestinal tract is colonized by hundreds of species of bacteria that outnumber the total cells in the host, yet must be compartmentalized and tolerated to prevent invasive growth and harmful inflammatory responses. A key function of commensal microbes is to contribute to the adaptive immune repertoire and to diverse lymphocyte effector functions. T cell responses against non-invasive commensals contribute to shaping the repertoire of effector/memory and regulatory T cells. How T cells elicited by commensal bacteria can influence autoimmunity is a central question that remains unsolved. The Littman Lab studies the antigenic specificity of microbiota-induced T cells and the mechanisms by which their functions are acquired upon interaction with distinct commensal species. His lab finds that Th17 cells, which are central to mucosal barrier defense but also participate in autoimmune disease, are induced by specific constituents of the microbiota, and acquire effector function only after additional exposure to endogenous adjuvants, such as the serum amyloid A proteins. The lab's studies in mice are not only relevant for human autoimmune diseases, many of which have Th17 cell involvement, but may also provide insights into how commensal microbe-specific T cell responses could be harnessed for mucosal vaccination and cancer immunotherapy. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Author: Dan R. Littman, M.D., Ph.D., Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Kimmel Professor of Molecular Immunology at New York University School of Medicine Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?22148
Views: 6408 nihvcast
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,[email protected], https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/, Tannins and Bacitracin Differentially Modulate Gut Microbiota of Broiler Chickens via BioMed Research International Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for decades in poultry farming as a tool to maintain bird health and improve growth performance. Global concern about the recurrent emergence and spreading of antimicrobial resistance is challenging the livestock producers to search for alternatives to feed added antibiotics. The use of phytogenic compounds appears as a feasible option due to their ability to emulate the bioactive properties of antibiotics. However, detailed description about the effects of in-feed antibiotics and alternative natural products on chicken intestinal microbiota is lacking. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used to study composition of cecal microbiota in broiler chickens supplemented with either bacitracin or a blend of chestnut and quebracho tannins over a 30-day grow-out period. Both tannins and bacitracin had a significant impact on diversity of cecal microbiota. Bacitracin consistently decreased Bifidobacterium while other bacterial groups were affected only at certain times. Tannins-fed chickens showed a drastic decrease in genus Bacteroides while certain members of order Clostridiales mainly belonging to the families Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae were increased. Different members of these groups have been associated with an improvement of intestinal health and feed efficiency in poultry, suggesting that these bacteria could be associated with productive performance of birds. - video upload powered by https://www.TunesToTube.com
Views: 19 Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Presenter: Lisa Sardinia, PhD, JD Most of the tens of trillions of cells that make up the human body are actually microbes. The gut microbiota make vitamins for us, help us digest food, battle disease-causing microbes, and may influence our behavior.
Views: 1762 Oregon Public Health Division
https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/gut-microbiota/ Overview: Dr. Hooper studies how the gut microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. In part 2, Hooper explains how a healthy gut microbes induce a host protein called RegIIIγ which helps to protect the host from infection by pathogenic gram-positive bacteria. Detailed description: In this lecture, Dr. Hooper introduces us to the fascinating world of human microbiota; the microorganisms that live within our bodies. Although we may think that most bacteria are harmful, Hooper provides ample evidence that symbiotic gut microbes are important to good human health. Her lab is interested in understanding how the microbiota changes during illness or disease and how it influences our ability to fight infections. Using germ-free mice, they were able to demonstrate that a healthy microbiota can shape development of the host immune system and provide protection against dangerous infections like salmonella. In the second part of her talk, Hooper explains how the balance of organisms in the microbiota is maintained. By comparing DNA microarray data from normal mice and germ-free mice, Hooper’s lab was able to look for genes induced by the microbiota. They identified RegIIIγ, an important protein involved in the protection against pathogenic bacteria. They showed that RegIIIγ forms pore complexes in the membranes of gram-positive bacteria and kills them. In mice and humans, the intestinal epithelium is coated with a layer of mucus. Typically, there is a gap between gut bacteria, which are found in the outer part of the mucus layer, and the epithelial cells. Hooper’s lab showed that RegIIIγ helps to maintain this gap by preventing gram-positive bacteria from colonizing the intestinal epithelial surface. This, in turn, prevents infection of the host. Speaker Biography: Although she always was interested in science, Lora Hooper’s love for biology started after taking an introductory class at Rhodes College in Memphis, TN where she was an undergraduate. Hooper continued her graduate education in the Molecular Cell Biology and Biochemistry Program at Washington University in St. Louis where she joined Dr. Jacques Baenziger's lab. For postdoctoral training, she stayed at Washington University, in the lab of Jeffrey Gordon, where she began her studies of the interaction between gut bacteria and host cells and discovered that bacteria have the capacity to modify carbohydrates important for cell signaling. Currently, Hooper is a Professor at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. She has established one of the handful of mouse facilities that have the capacity to breed germ-free mice. Using these mice, her lab explores the symbiotic relationship between a host and its microbiota with the aim of providing insight into human health. Hooper was a recipient of the Edith and Peter O’Donnell Awards in 2013 and in 2015 she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
Views: 7015 iBiology
Understanding the role of the gut microbiome in modulating host health and disease will require technologies for localized and long-term monitoring of microbiome and gut functions in vivo. Furthermore, new strategies are needed for precise modulation of microbiomes to enable new diagnostics and therapeutics, since existing approaches for modulating the microbiome can have significant off-target effects. Synthetic biology can provide new tools for studying and manipulating complex microbial communities. We have created strategies for engineering commensal gut bacteria, such as Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a major and stable member of the human gut microbiome with synthetic gene circuits and we demonstrated that the y are still functional in mice stably colonized with the engineered bacterium. This work provides a resource for Bacteroides genetic engineering towards future applications as non-invasive diagnostics and therapeutics in the gut microbiome. Furthermore, we have created technologies for the specific knockdown of bacteria living in mixed microbial communities. For example, we engineered CRISPR-Cas antimicrobials that kill bacteria based on their genetic signatures. In addition, we have built a technology platform for engineering phage host range, which enables the creation of well-defined phage cocktails that can kill specific subpopulations of bacteria within mixed microbial consortia. We anticipate that these strategies will be useful for the targeted knockdown of bacteria in complex microbiomes to understand the functional role of these bacteria or achieve therapeutic effects.
The primary shield: role of our microbes in heath and diseases Air date: Wednesday, April 26, 2017, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 00:44:18 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series The microbiota plays a fundamental role in the induction, education and function of the host immune system. In return, the host immune system has evolved multiple means by which to maintain its symbiotic relationship with the microbiota. The maintenance of this dialogue allows the induction of protective responses to pathogens and the utilization of regulatory pathways involved in the sustained tolerance to innocuous antigens. The ability of microbes to set the immunological tone of tissues, both locally and systemically, requires tonic sensing of microbes and complex feedback loops between innate and adaptive components of the immune system. Dr. Belkaid will discuss some of the dominant mediators of these interactions and discuss emerging themes associated with our current understanding of the immunological dialogue between the host and its microbiota in health and diseases. Dr. Belkaid work explores the field of immune regulation and has defined fundamental mechanisms that regulate tissue homeostasis and host immune responses. Her work uncovered key roles for the commensal microbiota and dietary factors in the maintenance of tissue immunity and protection to pathogens. Author: Yasmine Belkaid, Ph.D., Director, Microbiome Program, Chief of the Mucosal Immunology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23244
Views: 597 nihvcast
April 25, 2013 - The Genomics Landscape a Decade after the Human Genome Project More: http://www.genome.gov/27552257
Views: 2497 National Human Genome Research Institute
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 3) Air date: Friday, August 18, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 04:59:15 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23424
Views: 2110 nihvcast
June 4, 2014 - Current Topics in Genome Analysis 2014 A lecture series covering contemporary areas in genomics and bioinformatics. More: http://www.genome.gov/COURSE2014
Views: 3593 National Human Genome Research Institute
The mammalian virome in genetic analysis of health and disease pathogenesis Air date: Wednesday, April 22, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:13:51 Description: The Annual R. E. Dyer Lecture Disease occurs in only some people carrying risk alleles, a phenomenon that may well be due in part to the influence of our virome. Chronic virus infection of mice protects the host against cancer and infection through symbiotic stimulation of innate immunity, and can complement multiple genetic immunodeficiencies. The virome may contribute to individual variations in the clinical presentation of disease. However, persistent viruses can also trigger "virus-plus-susceptibility-gene" interactions leading to bacteria-dependent inflammatory disease. These bacteria-dependent phenotypes are only observed when the virus and a mutant allele of a host gene are present at the same time. Virgin hypothesized that trans-kingdom metagenomic (viruses, bacteria, archaea, fungi, metazoans) interactions may regulate virus infection, immunity, and inflammation. His lab confirmed this hypothesis by showing that helminth infection can reactivate latent herpesvirus through cytokine competition between IFN-gamma and IL-4/IL-13 at a viral promoter, and can inhibit antiviral immunity. The Virgin lab recently found that antibiotic treatment prevents persistent enteric norovirus infection, an effect rescued by fecal transplantation. This effect requires the IFN-lambda receptor but not adaptive immunity. Furthermore, treatment with IFN-lambda cures persistent enteric norovirus infection in the absence of adaptive immune cells, documenting the existence of what we believe to be sterilizing innate anti-viral immunity. These data beg the question of whether the virome is associated with human disease. His lab has found that the enteric virome is abnormal in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. They also observed significant disease-specific increases in Caudovirales taxa despite detecting expected decreases in bacterial microbiome diversity. This obesvation is consistent with a predator-prey relationship between the enteric virome and the bacterial microbiome in these diseases. Together these data indicate that mammals are best viewed as composite organisms in which the virome, and trans-kingdom interactions regulating and regulated by the virome, contribute to immunity, disease, and the genotype-phenotype relationship. Genetic analysis of disease risk, and the study of normal immunity, should incorporate consideration of the virome and trans-kingdom metagenomic interactions that control the virome. About the annual Rolla E. Dyer lecture: The annual Rolla E. Dyer Lecture features an internationally renowned researcher who has contributed substantially to the medical as well as the biological knowledge of infectious diseases. Established in 1950, the lecture series honors former NIH director Dr. R. E. Dyer, who was a noted authority on infectious diseases. For more information go to http://wals.od.nih.gov Author: Herbert W. 'Skip' Virgin IV, M.D., Ph.D., Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and Chair Department of Pathology and Immunology, Professor of Molecular Microbiology, and Professor of Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18963
Views: 18733 nihvcast
The extraordinary bacterial Type VI secretion machine Air date: Wednesday, December 10, 2014, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:15:18 Description: Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Bacterial pathogenesis typically involves multiple factors that influence the infection process. Type VI Secretion Systems (T6SS) are nanomachines that deliver proteins called effectors into target cells. The machines are evolutionarily related to the contractile tails of bacteriophages but are located within the cell cytosol. Through dynamic conformational changes in tail sheath-like structure, these machines deliver payloads of toxic effector proteins into target cells during a time interval that is likely less than five milliseconds. By defining biochemical activity of effectors, one can reveal how many of these proteins might kill other bacterial cells (e.g., by digesting peptidoglycan) as well as mammalian host cells (e.g., by cross-linking G actin) during pathogenesis. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggest that T6SS effectors are antibacterial both in vitro and in vivo (i.e., during infection) suggesting that these may influence in host colonization process by eliminating competing members of the commensal microbiota. The Mekalanos lab has also investigated the transcriptional changes that occur in prey cells that are undergoing attack by the T6SS and its effectors. Remarkably, lethal attacks from competing T6SS+ bacterial species results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in prey cells when measured using several different types of reporters. ROS was induced in E. coli when exposed to not only T6SS effectors, but also P1 phage and the antibiotic polymyxin B. His lab concludes that generation of ROS is a general outcome of contact-dependent interactions of aggressive competing bacterial species and may contribute to the lethality of such attacks. For more information go to http://wals.od.nih.gov Author: John Mekalanos, Ph.D., Adele H. Lehman Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics; Chair, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics; and Professor, Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18769
Views: 6048 nihvcast
Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. In this webinar, hosted by the The Nutritional Science Research Group, experts will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the scientific data as it relates to mushrooms and soy isoflavones in immune response as a mechanism for cancer prevention.
Views: 573 National Cancer Institute
Paul E. Wischmeyer, MD, EDIC Professor of Anesthesiology and Surgery Associate Vice Chair for Clinical Research, Department of Anesthesiology Director of Perioperative Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University School of Medicine
Views: 302 Duke Clinical Research Institute
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 2) Air date: Thursday, August 17, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 07:32:24 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23423
Views: 1919 nihvcast
Dr. Jed W. Fahey is a nutritional biochemist with broad training and extensive background in plant physiology, human nutrition, phytochemistry and nutritional biochemistry. He is the director of the Cullman Chemoprotection Center at Johns Hopkins. The reason I've asked him to join us today, in particular, however, is because he has been researching isothiocyanates like sulforaphane for over 20 years and is an exceptional expert in this arena. Dr. Fahey and his colleagues have been, in a big way, at the absolute center of what is a staggering amount of research on these very powerful compounds. There is hardly a topic which we can discuss in which he doesn't have an anecdote about a study he was involved in, or, in some cases, tribal knowledge that may not even be published but is nonetheless interesting and an important part of the story that is unique to his particular vantage point. ▶︎ If you have not seen my previous, extremely in-depth video on sulforaphane, a very important isothiocyanate, please do so: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zz4YVJ4aRfg -- Find out more about Dr. Fahey and the Cullman Chemoprotection Center: ▶︎ The Cullman Chemoprotection Center Website: http://www.chemoprotectioncenter.org/ ▶︎ The Cullman Chemoprotection Center Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/chemoprotectioncenter/ ▶︎ Dr. Fahey's Website: http://www.jedfahey.com/ ▶︎ Dr. Fahey on Twitter: http://twitter.com/jedosan --- Follow FoundMyFitness elsewhere: ▶︎ iTunes Podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 ▶︎ Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Instagram: http://www.instagram.com/foundmyfitness ▶︎ Email newsletter: http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=lifestyle-heuristic
Views: 102572 FoundMyFitness
Kevin Roelofs and Meg Muckenhoupt discuss stool banking and the incredible diversity and influence of gut bacteria. The average American gut contains up to 5 pounds of bacteria and other organisms called the gut microbiome. By using stool transplants from healthy donors, we can harness the power of the microbiome to cure a common, deadly, antibiotic-resistant gut infection called C. difficile — and there’s intriguing evidence that stool transplants could treat everything from inflammatory bowel disease to multiple sclerosis, depression, diabetes, obesity, and even hair loss. Kevin comes to us from Finch Therapeutics where he is researching new treatments that harness the gut microbiome. Meg is with OpenBiome, a stool bank that provides fecal microbiota transplants for over 900 institutions across the US and Europe.
Views: 1352 Talks at Google
https://www.ibiology.org/ecology/choanoflagellates/#part-2 Talk Overview: Animals, plants, green algae, fungi and slime molds are all forms of multicellular life, yet each evolved multicellularity independently. How did animals evolve from their single-celled ancestors? King addresses this question using a group of fascinating organisms called choanoflagellates. Choanoflagellates are the closest living relatives to animals; they are single-cell, flagellated, bacteria eating organisms found between fungi and animals on the phylogenetic tree of life. By sequencing the genomes of many choanoflagellate species, King and her colleagues have discovered that some genes required for multicellularity in animals, such as adhesion, signaling, and extracellular matrix genes, are found in choanoflagellates. This suggests that these genes may have evolved before the transition to multicellularity in animals. The choanoflagellate S. rosetta can exist as a unicellular organism or it can switch to form multicellular colonies. In fact, its life cycle can be quite complex; it can form long chain colonies, spherical colonies called rosettes, or exist in different unicellular forms. In part 2 of her talk, King explains how she chose to use S. rosetta as a simple model for animal origins. After overcoming the technical difficulty of getting S. rosetta to form rosettes in the lab, she investigated how rosettes develop and how the cells within a rosette adhere to each other. She also asked the intriguing question “What regulates rosette development?”. It turns out that rosette formation is regulated by lipids produced by environmental bacteria that S. rosetta eat. This result adds to the growing interest in how bacteria may be influencing the behavior of diverse animals including humans. Speaker Biography: While fossils sparked Nicole King’s childhood interest in evolution, she realized that the fossil record doesn’t explain fully how animals first evolved from their single celled ancestors. To answer this question, King decided to study modern day choanoflagellates. Choanoflagellates are single celled organisms that can also develop in to multicellular assemblages. King first learned about choanoflagellates while she was a graduate student with Richard Losick at Harvard University. She moved to the University of Wisconsin-Madison to do a post-doctoral fellowship focusing on choanoflagellates. In 2003, King joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley. Currently, she is a Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at Berkeley and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. King’s innovative studies have been recognized with a MacArthur Foundation Fellowship and a Pew Scholarship. King is also a Senior Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.
Views: 12811 iBiology
View more information on the DOE CSGF Program at http://www.krellinst.org/csgf Chris Smillie, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). However, despite its high efficacy and therapeutic potential, the mechanisms underlying FMT are poorly understood. Here, we use whole-genome shotgun sequencing to measure the gut microbiota of 20 RCDI patients and their donors before and after FMT. Surprisingly, although only 30 percent of donor species engraft, engraftment is highly predictable and is largely controlled by mass action and phylogenetic effects. We developed a new strain-tracking algorithm, allowing us to unambiguously detect the transfer of strains from donors to recipients for the first time. We show that, in contrast to species, strains have an all-or-nothing response to FMT and frequently adopt the same configuration in the recipient as in the donor. FMT also facilitates colonization by many environmental strains, but even the frequencies of these seemingly stochastic events are predictable. These findings provide a quantitative framework for donor selection, enabling the engineering of the human microbiota in RCDI patients.
Views: 85 Krell Institute
https://www.ibiology.org/microbiology/listeria/#part-2 Talk Overview: Cossart begins her talk with an overview of microbiology and then focuses on the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne, intracellular pathogen. Cossart explains how Listeria enter epithelial cells, move around inside cells, and spread between cells. She describes how her lab identifed Listeria virulence genes by comparing the sequence of a non-pathogenic species of Listeria with the sequence of L. monocytogenes. They found that Listeria uses a wide variety of strategies to infect and proliferate within its host. In Part 2, Cossart describes how modern molecular and cell biology techniques have yielded new concepts in microbiology. For example, small non-coding RNAs that are differentially expressed and necessary for virulence have been identified. Short and long antisense RNAs with multiple regulatory functions also have been found. It seems likely that these, and other newly identified mechanisms of bacterial regulation, may prove common to different bacterial species. In her final talk, Cossart reviews the many cellular processes impacted during infection with Listeria. She successively discusses activation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis during bacterial entry, nucleation of actin comet-tails by bacterial ActA, post-translational modifications during infection (in particular deSUMOylation), mitochondrial targeting, and finally chromatin remodeling and epigenetic regulation during infection. Listeria is a true cell biologist, manipulating all aspects of cell function. Speaker Biography: Dr. Cossart is the Head of the Bacteria-Cell Interactions Group and a professor “Classe Exceptionelle” at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. She is also a Senior International Research Scholar of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Cossart completed her undergraduate studies at Lille University. She received an MS in Chemistry from Georgetown University and a PhD in Biochemistry from the Pasteur Institute and the University of Paris. Cossart’s lab uses a multi-disciplined approach to study infection by intracellular bacteria. Listeria monocytogenes is their primary model system. Over the years, Listeria has provided numerous insights into the infection process from both the bacterial and cellular sides. Cossart’s contributions have been recognized with many honors. She is a member of the French Académie des Sciences, the German Leopoldina, the National Academy of Sciences USA and a foreign member of the Royal Society, London. She won the L’Oreal/UNESCO Award for Women in Science 1998, the Richard Lounsbery Prize 1998, the Rober Koch Prize 2007, the Jeantet Prize 2008, and the Balzan Prize 2013. In 2014, Cossart was awarded the FEBS/EMBO Women in Science Award.
Views: 2983 iBiology
October 15, 2009. The skin creates a barrier between the body and the environment. Using animal models, Dr. Julie Segre's laboratory focuses on the genetic pathways involved in building and repairing this skin barrier. The Segre laboratory estimates that approximately one million bacteria reside on each square centimeter of skin and many common skin conditions are associated with both impaired skin barrier function and increased microbial colonization. Dr. Segre moderated the discussion, answered questions and addressed comments. In addition, the webinar discussed details of the Human Microbiome Project. More: http://www.genome.gov/27535715
Views: 8283 National Human Genome Research Institute
Natural Allergy Solutions | Podcast #225 Thyroid Reset Summit: http://www.thyroidresetsummit.com Get Show Updates Here: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/newsletter You-tube Podcast Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=justinhealth Show Transcription: https://justinhealth.com/natural-allergy-solutions-podcast-225/ Schedule a FREE Consult: http://www.justinhealth.com/free-consultation Mold Problem? Visit: https://immunolytics.com/affiliate_jm.aspx Hello there and welcome to another awesome episode! Allergies are issues that are caused by an immune system that is hyper-responsive. Stress in the stress bucket, antigens which are foreign compounds, are some of the big causes of the hyper-responsive immune system. In this episode, learn the things to look at in the stress bucket such as food stress, emotional stress, exercise, too much, too little, infections, environmental antigens like cedar, dander, pollens and other things to help fix these issues in a functional medicine perspective. Answer why it tends to become a non-issue when one is healthy or when inflammation is under control. Also, learn why those little bits of antigens may be enough to tip one over when inflammation is already topped up and antigen or stress bucket is full. As always, thanks for watching and continue for more! Don't forget to share. Sharing is caring. In this episode, we cover: 02:33 Hyper Responsive Immune System and Allergies 10:26 Nutritional Functional Medicine Options for Allergies 15:09 Fungal Infection Solutions 20:05 Quercetin for Mast Cells 28:13 Poor Breathing Solutions ===================================== Subscribe on I-Tunes: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/itunes Review us at: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/itunes Visit us at: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com Have a question: http://www.beyondwellnessradio.com/question
Views: 632 Just In Health
In this lecture, Dr. Van Gelder will discuss his laboratory’s work on developing tools for detection of ocular infectious diseases. After viewing this lecture, participants should be able to: 1. Understand the major categories of ocular inflammatory disease 2. Understand the molecular tools available for detection of potential pathogen DNA 3. Understand the normal microbiota of the ocular surface 4. Appreciate the range of pathogens and potential pathogens detected by molecular techniques in infectious eye disease Russ Van Gelder, MD, PhD Professor and Chair Boyd K. Bucey Memorial Chair Department of Ophthalmology University of Washington http://depts.washington.edu/labweb/Education/ContEdu/
Views: 120 UW Video
Views: 120 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Immune tolerance or immunological tolerance describes a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response. It contrasts with conventional immune-mediated elimination of foreign antigens. Tolerance is classified into central tolerance or peripheral tolerance depending on where the state is originally induced—in the thymus and bone marrow or in other tissues and lymph nodes. The mechanisms by which these forms of tolerance are established are distinct, but the resulting effect is similar. Immune tolerance is important for normal physiology. Central tolerance is the main way the immune system learns to discriminate self from non-self. Peripheral tolerance is key to preventing over-reactivity of the immune system to various environmental entities. Deficits in central or peripheral tolerance also cause autoimmune disease, resulting in syndromes such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1, and immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome, and potentially contribute to asthma, allergy, and inflammatory bowel disease. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 1902 Audiopedia
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Escherichia coli 00:01:52 1 Biology and biochemistry 00:02:02 1.1 Type and morphology 00:03:12 1.2 Metabolism 00:03:48 1.3 Culture growth 00:05:05 1.4 Cell cycle 00:05:58 1.5 Genetic adaptation 00:06:37 2 Diversity 00:08:25 2.1 Serotypes 00:09:07 2.2 Genome plasticity and evolution 00:11:12 2.3 Neotype strain 00:12:27 2.4 Phylogeny of iE. coli/i strains 00:13:58 3 Genomics 00:15:49 4 Gene nomenclature 00:16:33 5 Proteomics 00:17:05 5.1 Proteome 00:17:32 5.2 Interactome 00:17:41 6 Normal microbiota 00:19:00 6.1 Therapeutic use 00:20:11 7 Role in disease 00:21:00 7.1 Incubation period 00:21:28 7.2 Treatment 00:25:12 7.3 Prevention 00:25:49 8 Model organism in life science research 00:27:03 8.1 Model organism 00:28:52 9 History 00:31:28 10 See also 00:33:15 11 References Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Escherichia coli (), also known as E. coli (), is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination. The harmless strains are part of the normal microbiota of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2, and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria, having a symbiotic relationship. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.E. coli and other facultative anaerobes constitute about 0.9% of gut microbiota, and fecal–oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them potential indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. A growing body of research, though, has examined environmentally persistent E. coli which can survive for extended periods outside a host.The bacterium can be grown and cultured easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is a chemoheterotroph whose chemically defined medium must include a source of carbon and energy. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA. Under favorable conditions, it takes up to 20 minutes to reproduce.
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeast 00:02:17 1 History 00:04:56 2 Nutrition and growth 00:07:15 3 Ecology 00:10:41 4 Reproduction 00:13:19 5 Uses 00:14:00 5.1 Alcoholic beverages 00:15:03 5.1.1 Beer 00:18:53 5.1.2 Wine 00:20:47 5.2 Baking 00:23:39 5.3 Bioremediation 00:24:30 5.4 Industrial ethanol production 00:25:36 5.5 Nonalcoholic beverages 00:27:01 5.6 Nutritional supplements 00:28:45 5.7 Probiotics 00:29:21 5.8 Aquarium hobby 00:29:49 5.9 Yeast extract 00:30:54 5.10 Scientific research 00:32:38 5.11 Genetically engineered biofactories 00:33:24 6 Pathogenic yeasts 00:35:01 7 Food spoilage 00:36:14 8 See also 00:36:42 9 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9358690043496498 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Yeasts are eukaryotic single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom. The first yeast originated hundreds of millions of years ago, and 1,500 species are currently identified. They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts are unicellular organisms which evolved from multicellular ancestors, with some species having the ability to develop multicellular characteristics by forming strings of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae or false hyphae. Yeast sizes vary greatly, depending on species and environment, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can grow to 40 µm in size. Most yeasts reproduce asexually by mitosis, and many do so by the asymmetric division process known as budding. Yeasts, with their single-celled growth habit, can be contrasted with molds, which grow hyphae. Fungal species that can take both forms (depending on temperature or other conditions) are called dimorphic fungi ("dimorphic" means "having two forms"). By fermentation, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae converts carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and alcohols – for thousands of years the carbon dioxide has been used in baking and the alcohol in alcoholic beverages. It is also a centrally important model organism in modern cell biology research, and is one of the most thoroughly researched eukaryotic microorganisms. Researchers have used it to gather information about the biology of the eukaryotic cell and ultimately human biology. Other species of yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans. Yeasts have recently been used to generate electricity in microbial fuel cells, and produce ethanol for the biofuel industry. Yeasts do not form a single taxonomic or phylogenetic grouping. The term "yeast" is often taken as a synonym for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the phylogenetic diversity of yeasts is shown by their placement in two separate phyla: the Ascomycota and the Basidiomycota. The budding yeasts ("true yeasts") are classified in the order Saccharomycetales, within the phylum Ascomycota.
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Aujourd'hui, on parle d'une problématique qui touchera toutes les femmes au moins une fois dans leur vie: boucher le drain avec leurs cheveux... Nah, on parle d'infections urinaires. Musique de l'intro: Neon Indian - Annie Sources de l'épisode: Flores-Mireles, Ana L., et al. "Urinary tract infections: epidemiology, mechanisms of infection and treatment options." Nature reviews microbiology 13.5 (2015): 269. Kudinha, Timothy. "The Pathogenesis of Escherichia Coli Urinary Tract Infection." Escherichia coli-Recent Advances on Physiology, Pathogenesis and Biotechnological Applications. InTech, 2017. Lane, David R., and Sukhjit S. Takhar. "Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis." Emergency Medicine Clinics 29.3 (2011): 539-552. Nicolle, Lindsay E. "Uncomplicated urinary tract infection in adults including uncomplicated pyelonephritis." Urologic Clinics of North America 35.1 (2008): 1-12. Salvatore, Stefano, et al. "Urinary tract infections in women." European journal of obstetrics & gynecology and reproductive biology 156.2 (2011): 131-136.
Views: 167 Miss Crobe
Professor John (Jack) Werren is the Nathaniel and Helen Wisch Professor of Biology at the University of Rochester and a renowned expert on genetics and evolution. Author of over 200 publications, Werren's research takes a multidisciplinary approach and combines molecular, genetic, genomic, evolutionary, and ecological perspectives to study basic questions in biology, genetics and evolution. Current research topics include: (1) evolution of inherited microorganisms, (2) genetic basis of morphological and behavioral differences between species, (3) genetic conflict and the evolution of "parasitic" or "selfish" DNA, and (4) function and evolution of parasitoid venoms. Werren received his interdisciplinary B.A. degree from the University of Virginia and his Ph.D. in biology from the University of Utah. After serving as a postdoctoral researcher in entomology at the University of Maryland, he joined the faculty at the University of Rochester in 1986. A recipient of the Humboldt Prize (Alexander Humboldt Foundation), he was elected as fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was also a finalist for the International Prize in Biology (Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science).
Views: 127 Claremont McKenna College
The Zebrafish Guide to Tuberculosis Air date: Wednesday, October 07, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:14:24 Description: We have developed the zebrafish as a surrogate model to study human tuberculosis. The optical transparency combined with the genetic tractability of this model have proved to be powerful and have allowed us to make surprising discoveries about tuberculosis pathogenesis, immunity, and drug tolerance that suggest completely new approaches to treatment. These discoveries and their application to human tuberculosis treatment will be discussed. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Lalita Ramakrishnan, M.D., Ph.D., University of Cambridge Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19218
Views: 1048 nihvcast
These days we see "anti-bacterial" thrown on everything and we buy into this bacteria-free frenzy. But do bacteria really deserve a reputation for causing disease? A growing body of studies tells us that the answer to this question is NO. Learn more about probiotics and how they can serve our body. Dr. Sara Gottfried and Dr. Pedram Shojai discuss the science behind probiotics and the different foods that are concentrated with these good bacteria. Read The Full Article Here: http://well.org/probiotics-germs-that-are-good-for-you/ Explore more about Nutrition: http://well.org/category/nutrition Connect with us: Facebook - http://well.org/facebook Twitter - http://well.org/twitter Pinterest - http://well.org/pinterest
Views: 4274 Well.org
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fecal_microbiota_transplant 00:01:47 1 Definition 00:02:50 2 Medical uses 00:02:59 2.1 iClostridium difficile/i infection 00:04:25 2.2 Ulcerative colitis and other gastrointestinal conditions 00:05:22 3 Adverse effects 00:06:01 4 Technique 00:06:41 4.1 Donor selection 00:07:34 4.2 Specimen preparation 00:09:03 4.3 Administration 00:09:25 5 Mechanism of action 00:11:23 6 History 00:14:16 7 Society and culture 00:14:26 7.1 Regulation 00:17:39 7.2 Stool banks 00:18:41 8 Research 00:19:23 9 Veterinary use Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8627324387531643 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), also known as a stool transplant, is the process of transplantation of fecal bacteria from a healthy individual into a recipient. FMT involves restoration of the colonic microflora by introducing healthy bacterial flora through infusion of stool, e.g. by colonoscopy, enema, orogastric tube or by mouth in the form of a capsule containing freeze-dried material, obtained from a healthy donor. The effectiveness of FMT has been established in clinical trials for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), whose effects can range from diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis. Due to an epidemic of CDI in North America and Europe, FMT has gained increasing prominence, with some experts calling for it to become first-line therapy for CDI. In 2013 a randomized, controlled trial of FMT from healthy donors showed it to be highly effective in treating recurrent C. difficile in adults, and more effective than vancomycin alone. FMT has been used experimentally to treat other gastrointestinal diseases, including colitis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, and neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulated human feces as an experimental drug since 2013. In the United Kingdom, FMT regulation is under the remit of the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.
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Worldwide Emergence of Drug-Resistant Infections and What's Being Done About It Air date: Tuesday, January 07, 2014, 4:00:00 PM Runtime: 01:48:41 Description: The 2014 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 7th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well. For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: Anthony Fauci, MD (NIAID) Jeffrey Taubenberger, MD, PhD (NIAID) Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18222 Runtime: 01:41:10 Description: The 2014 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 7th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well. For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: Mark Hoon, PhD (NIDCR) Irwin Arias, MD (NICHD/CC) Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18231
Views: 550 nihvcast
2018 Demystifying Medicine: The Great Neglected Diseases Air date: Tuesday, February 27, 2018, 4:00:00 PM Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 02:00:11 Description: The Demystifying Medicine Lecture Series is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their applications to major human diseases. The lectures include presentations of patients, pathology, diagnosis, and therapy in the context of major diseases and current research. All clinicians, trainees including fellows, medical students, Ph.D. students, and other healthcare and research professionals are welcome to attend. For more information go to https://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: Thomas Nutman, MD, NIAID, NIH and Alan Sher, PhD, NIAID, NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23731
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Views: 230 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Views: 206 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Views: 346 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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