Functional dynamics of the gut microbiome in health and disease Air date: Tuesday, October 27, 2015, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 01:00:59 Description: NIH Director’s Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series Dr. Fraser's current research interests are focused oncharacterization of the structure and function of the microbial communitiesthat are found in the human environment, as part of the NIH-funded HumanMicrobiome Project, including projects specifically focused on obesity,metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, the interactions between thehuman immune response and the gut microbiome, and the impact of probiotics onthe structure and function of the intestinal microbiome. About the annual Rolla E. Dyer lecture: The annual Rolla E. Dyer Lecture features aninternationally renowned researcher who has contributed substantially to themedical as well as the biological knowledge of infectious diseases. Establishedin 1950, the lecture series honors former NIH director Dr. Dyer, who was anoted authority on infectious diseases. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals Author: Claire Fraser, Ph.D., Professor of Medicine, Microbiology and Immunology; Director, Institute for Genome Sciences; University of Maryland School of Medicine Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19272
Views: 3328 nihvcast
Streamed live on April 18, 2017 Inflammation is one of the body’s first lines of defense against disease. But there is growing evidence that chronic or acute inflammation can fuel the development of a range of chronic ailments, including autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative conditions, heart and metabolic diseases and more. In this seminar, Harvard Medical School researchers and clinicians explore the connection between inflammation and chronic diseases, and what can be done to reduce the risks. Speakers: Diane Mathis, PhD, Filip Swirski, PhD, Beth Stevens, PhD, and Steve Shoelson, PhD Like Harvard Medical School on Facebook: https://goo.gl/4dwXyZ Follow on Twitter: https://goo.gl/GbrmQM Follow on Instagram: https://goo.gl/s1w4up Follow on LinkedIn: https://goo.gl/04vRgY Website: https://hms.harvard.edu/
Views: 4009 Harvard Medical School
Demystifying Medicine 2014 - The Intestinal Microbiome: Role in Nutrition, Metabolism, and Inflamation Air date: Tuesday, March 04, 2014, 4:00:00 PM Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 01:45:35 Description: The 2014 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 7th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well. For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: Yasmin Belkaid, PhD (NIAID) Warren Strober, MD (NIAID) Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18322
Views: 4517 nihvcast
Bacteria can arguably be our body’s worst nightmares. But what if they could work to kill tumors? Two-Thirds of All Cancers Are Caused by One Thing: Your DNA - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZUk0gF_-T4 Get 20% off http://www.domain.com domain names and web hosting when you use coupon code SEEKER at checkout! Read More: Bacteria Helps Make Us Fat and Thin https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-gut-bacteria-help-make-us-fat-and-thin/ “New evidence indicates that gut bacteria alter the way we store fat, how we balance levels of glucose in the blood, and how we respond to hormones that make us feel hungry or full. The wrong mix of microbes, it seems, can help set the stage for obesity and diabetes from the moment of birth.” How gut microbes are joining the fight against cancer https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05208-8 “But the taunting stopped after Routy and his colleagues published evidence that certain gut bacteria seem to boost people’s response to treatment1. Now, those physicians are eager to analyse faecal samples from their patients in the hope of predicting who is likely to respond to anticancer drugs. “It was an eye-opener for a lot of people who couldn’t see the clinical relevance of gut microbes,” says Routy, who is now at the University of Montreal Health Centre in Canada.” Gut bacteria influence effectiveness of a type of immunotherapy https://www.cancer.gov/news-events/cancer-currents-blog/2018/gut-bacteria-checkpoint-inhibitors “The type of immunotherapy, called checkpoint inhibition, can cause even advanced tumors to shrink rapidly or disappear. Unfortunately, only a minority of patients have such strong responses to these therapies, and researchers have been trying to figure out why.” ____________________ Elements is more than just a science show. It’s your science-loving best friend, tasked with keeping you updated and interested on all the compelling, innovative and groundbreaking science happening all around us. Join our passionate hosts as they help break down and present fascinating science, from quarks to quantum theory and beyond. Seeker explains every aspect of our world through a lens of science, inspiring a new generation of curious minds who want to know how today’s discoveries in science, math, engineering and technology are impacting our lives, and shaping our future. Our stories parse meaning from the noise in a world of rapidly changing information. Visit the Seeker website https://www.seeker.com/videos Elements on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerElements/ Subscribe now! http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=dnewschannel Seeker on Twitter http://twitter.com/seeker Seeker on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/SeekerMedia/ Seeker http://www.seeker.com/
Views: 68469 Seeker
Dr. Rhonda Patrick interviews 3-time New York Times best-selling author Tim Ferriss. They discuss what Tim's leading blood biomarkers are that he focuses on optimizing, the importance of tracking glucose along with ketones to make sure you don't confuse non-nutritional ketosis with the real deal, Tim's personal experience beating lyme disease and his insights on recovery, the origin and cause of "lyme hysteria", and how some of the symptoms of what is described as "chronic lyme disease" may actually be caused by a disrupted gut microbiome from uninterrupted, long-term use of antibiotics, what the "minimum effective dose" is when it comes to working out, and a little bit about Tim's workout routine and much much more. You can check out Tim's blog here: http://www.fourhourworkweek.com/ You can get in touch with him on Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram here: http://www.twitter.com/tferriss http://www.facebook.com/timferriss http://www.instagram.com/timferriss You can subscribe to his podcast by going here https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/the-tim-ferriss-show/id863897795?mt=2 (note: Like Tim, I am also on iTunes!) You can buy one of his many books here: http://www.amazon.com/Timothy-Ferriss/e/B001ILKBW2/ref=sr_ntt_srch_lnk_1?qid=1439325281&sr=8-1&tracking_id=foun06-20 ... or his TV show here: https://itunes.apple.com/us/tv-season/the-tim-ferriss-experiment/id984734983 -------------------------------------------------------- Join my weekly newsletter (please!): http://www.foundmyfitness.com/?sendme=nutrigenomics Crowdfund more videos: http://www.patreon.com/foundmyfitness Subscribe on YouTube: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=foundmyfitness Subscribe to the podcast: http://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/foundmyfitness/id818198322 Twitter: http://twitter.com/foundmyfitness Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/foundmyfitness
Views: 271199 FoundMyFitness
This episode features Matthew Walker, PhD, who is a professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and serves as the Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science. Formerly, Dr. Walker served as a professor of psychiatry at the Harvard Medical School. Walker's research examines the impact of sleep on human health and disease. One area of interest focuses on identifying "vulnerability windows" during a person's life that make them more susceptible to amyloid-beta deposition and, subsequently, Alzheimer's disease later in life. In this episode, we discuss how sleep plays a critical role in learning and memory, in the regulation of emotions including loneliness, in the function of the immune system, preventing the formation of amyloid beta plaques in the brain and Alzheimer's disease, glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity. We also discuss how certain dietary macronutrients affect sleep, the effect of sleeping pills and alcohol on sleep, the accuracy of sleep trackers, and so much more. Get the episode's show notes and transcript. https://www.foundmyfitness.com/episodes/matthew-walker ▶︎ Get Dr. Mathew Walker's New York Times bestselling book: Why We Sleep. https://www.simonandschuster.com/books/Why-We-Sleep/Matthew-Walker/9781501144325 ▶︎ Did you enjoy this podcast? It was brought to you by people like you! Become a member of the community by supporting the podcast with your own pay-what-you-can subscription. https://www.foundmyfitness.com/crowdsponsor ▶︎ Submit your raw genetic data. You can find the circadian report and APOE report at https://www.foundmyfitness.com/genetics.
Views: 102924 FoundMyFitness
Demystifying Medicine 2014 - Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Who, What, When and How Air date: Tuesday, March 18, 2014, 4:00:00 PM Category: Demystifying Medicine Runtime: 01:53:18 Description: The 2014 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 7th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well. For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov Author: Leonard Seefe, MD (NIH/FDA Formerly) Chris Austin, MD (NCATS) Permanent link: http://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?18336
Views: 4342 nihvcast
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Views: 720 National Human Genome Research Institute
July 24-26, 2013 - Human Microbiome Science: Vision for the Future More: http://www.genome.gov/27554404
Views: 2690 National Human Genome Research Institute
https://www.ibiology.org/immunology/antibody-diversity/ Dr. Ploegh describes how antibody diversity lets us resist the multitude of infectious agents we encounter every day. He also explains how camelid antibody fragments are changing medicine. Talk Overview: How does our immune system protect us against all of the infectious agents and foreign substances we encounter? Much of the answer lies in antibody diversity. In his first talk, Dr. Hidde Ploegh explains how B cells shuffle their genetic material such that regions of the immunoglobulin protein are rearranged. This generates the antibody diversity needed to recognize an almost infinite number of antigens. Interactions of B cells with T helper cells results in the formation of structurally distinct classes of immunoglobulins, further increasing antibody diversity. T killer cells are primed to attack infectious agents when immunoglobulins on their surface recognize antigens presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Ploegh explains that by subverting the MHC pathway, viruses and cancer cells can evade the immune system. In part two, Ploegh describes how his lab takes advantage of the unique properties of antibodies from the Camelidae family (alpacas, llamas, camels, etc). In addition to traditional antibodies, these animals naturally make small, heavy-chain only antibodies (nanobodies). These molecules can be isolated, amplified in bacteria, and engineered for new applications. As well as using nanobodies to target viruses and inflammasomes, Ploegh explains how his lab uses labelled nanobodies for non-invasive, live imaging of cancer tumors in mice. These technologies have exciting implications in basic and biomedical studies. Speaker Biography: Dr. Hidde Ploegh is an immunologist at Boston Children’s Hospital. His love for immunology began when he was an undergraduate at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. As a student, he wrote a letter to renowned immunologist Jon van Rood but never heard back. However, as an undergraduate researcher, he had an opportunity to work with Dr. Jack Strominger at Harvard University for 6 months. The experience was so great that after earning a BS and Masters in Biology and Chemistry from the University of Groningen, he returned to Strominger’s lab for his graduate studies. Ironically, his thesis committee chair ended up being Jon van Rood. Ploegh ultimately received his PhD from Leiden University in the Netherlands. Following graduate school, Ploegh was highly sought after by several institutions. Fresh from his PhD, Ploegh was first offered a position as a junior group leader in immunology at the University of Cologne, Germany in 1980. Since then, he has worked at the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard Medical School and most recently, the Whitehead Institute. His accolades, in addition to prestigious awards, include induction into the European Molecular Biology Organization (1986), the American Academy of Arts and Science (2002) and the National Academy of Sciences (2012). He has contributed to over 500 papers. Learn more about his lab and research here: http://www.childrenshospital.org/research-and-innovation/research/programs/program-in-cellular-and-molecular-medicine/faculty-and-research/hidde-ploegh/lab-highlights
Views: 4411 iBiology
On May 2nd, MatTek Corporation and IONTOX scientists hosted a joint webinar discussing how using integrated organ systems in conjunction with MatTek’s EpiIntestinal™ are being used to study cholestatic drug-induced liver injury in vitro. Watch the video to learn about the wide-ranging potential and implications of this technology for medical studies and future research.
Views: 120 MatTek Corporation
Perspective on autoimmunity: a view from the ANCA vasculitis looking glass Air date: Wednesday, November 2, 2016, 3:00:00 PM Category: WALS - Wednesday Afternoon Lectures Runtime: 00:59:24 Description: NIH Director's Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Astute Clinician Lecture Dr. Falk's research probes questions focused on immune-mediated kidney diseases, especially glomerulonephritis. His clinical and basic science interests include both anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) glomerulonephritis and small vessel vasculitis (SVV). A central objective of Falk's research is elucidating the causes of ANCA necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Unraveling the cause of this disease requires considering a number of factors involved in the development of ANCA glomerulonephritis. Dr. Falk conceptualizes this process as opening the vasculitis lock with a key that has a number of "ridges and valleys" analogous to those factors that contribute to the development of this autoimmune disease. Dr. Falk participates in a research group that, in a large study over the last four years, has revealed a number of avenues of investigation and new approaches to ongoing questions that pertain not only to ANCA glomerulonephritis, but to the general fields of autoimmunity, inflammation and basic neutrophil and monocyte biology. This annual lecture started in 1998 and honors a U.S. scientist who has observed an unusual occurrence, and by investigating it, has opened an important new avenue of research. The lectureship exemplifies how astute clinical observations can lead to innovative research. Speakers are selected by the NIH Clinical Center. For more information go to https://oir.nih.gov/wals/2016-2017 Debug: Show Debug Author: Ronald J. Falk, M.D., Hugh and Nan Cullman Eminent Professor and Chair, Department of Medicine at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?19984
Views: 2056 nihvcast
Dr. Jack Gilbert, Professor in Department of Surgery and Faculty Director, The Microbiome Center, University of Chicago. Through the Earth Microbiome Project (EMP), Jack Gilbert and his colleagues are using crowdsourcing techniques to study the microbial makeup of the planet. The EMP is revealing vast diversity in the microbial communities in our soil. Gilbert explores what we can learn from this diversity, and what the variations in these communities mean for humans.
Views: 1612 Gustavus Adolphus College
Restorative Practices is an approach to promoting positive behaviors that focuses on understanding the conflict and how to repair the harm, rather than traditional discipline. This video outlines how it works in Spokane Public Schools. Learn more at www.spokaneschools.org/Restorative.
Views: 10268 Spokane Public Schools
Need help determining if your Kidde fire extinguisher is in the recall? This video will guide you through the process including where to locate the model, date code, and serial number information and how to request a replacement. For additional help, contact 1-855-271-0773 (US) or 1-855-233-2882 (Canada).
Views: 207381 Kidde Fire Safety
►Get the full story: http://win.gs/RedBull111Megawatt Jonny Walker has claimed his Red Bull 111 Megawatt hat trick with a narrow victory over Mario Román in the Polish Hard Enduro. Delivering a nail-biter of a finish to this year’s event, he held off a last gasp attack from Mario Román to secure the top step of the podium in the fourth edition of the race. _ Experience the world of Red Bull like you have never seen it before. With the best action sports clips on the web and original series, prepare for your "stoke factor" to be at an all time high. Watch Red Bull TV: http://win.gs/WatchRBTV See into our world: http://goo.gl/J49U Red Bull on Facebook: http://win.gs/redbullfb Red Bull on Twitter: http://win.gs/redbulltwitter Subscribe to Red Bull on Youtube: http://win.gs/SubToRedBull Subscribe to the Red Bulletin: http://win.gs/TheRedBulletin Sign up for our Newsletter here: http://win.gs/RedBullNewsletter
Views: 123660 Red Bull
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 2) Air date: Thursday, August 17, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 07:32:24 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23423
Views: 1911 nihvcast
The Human Microbiome: Emerging Themes at the Horizon of the 21st Century (Day 3) Air date: Friday, August 18, 2017, 8:15:00 AM Category: Conferences Runtime: 04:59:15 Description: The 2017 NIH-wide microbiome workshop will strive to cover advances that reveal the specific ways in which the microbiota influences the physiology of the host, both in a healthy and in a diseased state and how the microbiota may be manipulated, either at the community, population, organismal or molecular level, to maintain and/or improve the health of the host. The goal will be to seek input from a trans-disciplinary group of scientists to identify 1) knowledge gaps, 2) technical hurdles, 3) new approaches and 4) research opportunities that will inform the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies based on host/microbiome interactions over the next ten years. Author: NIH Permanent link: https://videocast.nih.gov/launch.asp?23424
Views: 2103 nihvcast
Watch as Jacob Scott, Lowrance Product Expert, shows how to switch between CHIRP, 2D Sonar and StructureScan HD on the Lowrance Elite Ti graph. Learn more: https://www.lowrance.com/lowrance/series/elite-ti/?utm_source=youtube.com&utm_medium=referral
Views: 15995 Lowrance
Lowrance Pro Ish Monroe shows how he installs his HDS® Gen3 units, transducers, and networked accessories.
Views: 17288 Lowrance
Views: 332 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut_flora 00:00:28 1 Overview 00:02:39 2 Classifications 00:06:33 2.1 Enterotype 00:07:10 3 Composition 00:07:20 3.1 Anatomy 00:07:29 3.1.1 Stomach 00:08:13 3.1.2 Intestines 00:11:56 3.2 Age 00:13:08 3.3 Diet 00:14:49 3.4 Geography 00:17:33 4 Acquisition in human infants 00:22:04 5 Functions 00:22:48 5.1 Direct inhibition of pathogens 00:23:29 5.2 Development of enteric protection and immune system 00:27:43 5.3 Metabolism 00:29:54 5.4 Host-gut microbiota-xenobiotic interaction 00:30:32 5.5 Gut-brain axis 00:32:06 6 Alterations in flora balance 00:32:18 6.1 Effects of antibiotic use 00:35:35 6.2 Pregnancy 00:36:15 6.3 Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and pharmabiotics 00:38:27 6.4 Research 00:39:00 7 Role in disease 00:39:54 7.1 Ulcers 00:40:42 7.2 Bowel perforation 00:41:18 7.3 Inflammatory bowel diseases 00:42:54 7.4 Irritable bowel syndrome 00:43:55 7.5 Other inflammatory or autoimmune conditions 00:44:35 7.5.1 Asthma 00:46:17 7.5.2 Diabetes mellitus type 1 00:47:02 7.6 Obesity and metabolic syndrome 00:49:58 7.7 Liver disease 00:50:31 7.8 Cancer 00:51:12 7.9 Neuropsychiatric 00:53:03 8 Other animals 00:55:24 9 See also 00:55:52 10 Sources and notes 00:56:03 11 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7885852104460678 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-F "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gut_flora 00:00:20 1 Overview 00:01:55 2 Classifications 00:04:41 2.1 Enterotype 00:05:09 3 Composition 00:05:18 3.1 Anatomy 00:05:26 3.1.1 Stomach 00:05:59 3.1.2 Intestines 00:08:39 3.2 Age 00:09:33 3.3 Diet 00:10:24 3.3.1 Vegetarian and Vegan Diets 00:11:41 3.3.2 Malnourishment 00:12:14 3.4 Geography 00:14:13 4 Acquisition in human infants 00:17:26 5 Functions 00:17:59 5.1 Direct inhibition of pathogens 00:18:30 5.2 Development of enteric protection and immune system 00:21:31 5.3 Metabolism 00:23:06 5.4 Host-gut microbiota-xenobiotic interaction 00:23:35 5.5 Gut-brain axis 00:24:44 6 Alterations in flora balance 00:24:54 6.1 Effects of antibiotic use 00:27:14 6.2 Pregnancy 00:27:44 6.3 Probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and pharmabiotics 00:29:18 6.4 Research 00:29:43 7 Role in disease 00:30:23 7.1 Ulcers 00:30:59 7.2 Bowel perforation 00:31:27 7.3 Inflammatory bowel diseases 00:32:37 7.4 Irritable bowel syndrome 00:33:23 7.5 Other inflammatory or autoimmune conditions 00:33:53 7.5.1 Asthma 00:35:06 7.5.2 Diabetes mellitus type 1 00:35:40 7.6 Obesity and metabolic syndrome 00:37:48 7.7 Liver disease 00:38:14 7.8 Cancer 00:38:44 7.9 Neuropsychiatric 00:40:04 8 Other animals 00:41:46 9 See also 00:42:09 10 Sources and notes 00:42:18 11 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9561487941795885 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-B "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and animals, including insects. The gut metagenome is the aggregate of all the genomes of gut microbiota. The gut is one niche that human microbiota inhabit.
Views: 2 wikipedia tts