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Mining
 
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019 - Mining In this video Paul Andersen explains how mining is used to extract valuable minerals from the Earth's crust. Surface and subsurface mining are used to extract ore which is then processed. A discussion of ecosystem impacts and legislation is also included. Do you speak another language? Help me translate my videos: http://www.bozemanscience.com/translations/ Music Attribution Intro Title: I4dsong_loop_main.wav Artist: CosmicD Link to sound: http://www.freesound.org/people/CosmicD/sounds/72556/ Creative Commons Atribution License Outro Title: String Theory Artist: Herman Jolly http://sunsetvalley.bandcamp.com/track/string-theory All of the images are licensed under creative commons and public domain licensing: Cateb, M. (2010). Português: Cobre e latão para soldas. Lingote de prata 950 e chapa de prata. Liga para ser adicionada à prata, com cobre e germânio. Grânulos de prata fina. Foto : Mauro Cateb, joalheiro brasileiro. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Metals_for_jewellery.jpg English: Anthracite coal. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Coal_anthracite.jpg File:MKingHubbert.jpg. (2011, September 13). In Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MKingHubbert.jpg&oldid=450215564 Jones, N. (2007). English: Sand and gravel strata on the southern edge of Coxford Wood The sand and gravel quarry goes right up to the edge of wood. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sand_and_gravel_strata_on_the_southern_edge_of_Coxford_Wood_-_geograph.org.uk_-_610732.jpg Jyi1693. (2006). English: Seawater photographed from aboard the MV Virgo out of Singapore, 2006. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sea_water_Virgo.jpg KVDP. (2009). English: A schematic showing the locations of certain ores in the world. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Simplified_world_mining_map_1.png printer, -G. F. Nesbitt & Co. (1850). English: Sailing card for the clipper ship California, depicting scenes from the California gold rush. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:California_Clipper_500.jpg USA, G. ([object HTMLTableCellElement]). Italiano: Grafico che rappresenta il picco di Hubbert della produzione petrolifera mondiale. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hubbert_world_2004.svg Vance, R. H. (1850). English: “Photomechanical reproduction of the 1850(?) daguerreotype by R. H. Vance shows James Marshall standing in front of Sutter’s sawmill, Coloma, California, where he discovered gold.” Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sutters_Mill.jpg
Views: 79259 Bozeman Science
Mining the New American West | National Geographic
 
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For centuries the American West has been the realm of cowboys, miners and frontiersman. Since 1872 mining companies have been reaping the benefit of an antiquated law allowing mining companies to purchase land at bargain prices, such as the recent acquisition of an entire mountain for only 875 dollars. Wild Chronicles follows what happens when 19th century laws are faced up against 21st century sensibilities. ➡ Subscribe: http://bit.ly/NatGeoSubscribe About National Geographic: National Geographic is the world's premium destination for science, exploration, and adventure. Through their world-class scientists, photographers, journalists, and filmmakers, Nat Geo gets you closer to the stories that matter and past the edge of what's possible. Get More National Geographic: Official Site: http://bit.ly/NatGeoOfficialSite Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBNatGeo Twitter: http://bit.ly/NatGeoTwitter Instagram: http://bit.ly/NatGeoInsta Mining the New American West | National Geographic https://youtu.be/LYWVqDLJCoo National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/natgeo
Views: 94931 National Geographic
Contract Law 76 V Hadley v Baxendale
 
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V. Remedies C. Breach by the Seller Hadley v. Baxendale (broken crank shaft shipment) To access case file, copy and paste link into browser -ianayres.com/sites/default/files/files/Hadley%20v_%20Baxendale.docx These video lectures are taken from Prof. Ayres’ Coursera Courses: American Contract Law I & II. All lectures plus assessments, animations, and discussion forums will me made available on Coursera.org Fall 2017!
Views: 3092 YaleCourses
Introduction : Land Acquisition Act 2013
 
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PREAMBLE a humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition for industrialisation, development of essential infrastructural facilities and urbanisation with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and provide just and fair compensation Gazette Notification - Act shall come into force from 1st January, 2014. Section 2 - Application of Act (1) The provisions of this Act relating to land acquisition, compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement, shall apply, when the appropriate Government acquires land for its own use, hold and control, for public purpose, including:— (a) for strategic purposes relating to naval, military, air force, and armed forces; or (b) for infrastructure projects, which includes the following, namely:— (i) activities excluding private hospitals, private educational institutions and private hotels; (ii) projects involving agro-processing; (iii) mining activities; (iv) water harvesting, (v) educational and research schemes or institutions; (c) project for project affected families; (e) land for residential purposes; (2) :— (a) for public private partnership; (b) for private companies for public purpose— (i) private companies, the prior consent of at least eighty per cent. of those affected families, as defined in sub-clauses (i) and (v) of clause (c) of section 3; and (ii) public private partnership projects, the prior consent of at least seventy per cent. of those affected families, as defined in sub-clauses (i) and (v) of clause (c) of section 3, (3) rehabilitation and resettlement, where,— (a) a private company purchases land, through private negotiations with the owner of the land in accordance with the provisions of section 46; (b) a private company requests the appropriate Government for acquisition of a part of an area for a public purpose: Section 3 - Definitions In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,— (a) “Administrator” means an officer appointed for the purpose of rehabilitation and resettlement of affected families under sub-section (1) of section 43; (c) “affected family” includes- (i) a family whose land or other immovable property has been acquired; (ii) a family of agricultural labourers, tenants; (iii) the Scheduled Tribes and traditional forest dwellers; (d) “agricultural land” means land used for the purpose of— (i) agriculture or horticulture; (ii) dairy farming, poultry fanning, pisciculture, sericulture, seed farming breeding of livestock or nursery growing medicinal herbs; (iii) raising of crops, trees, grass or garden produce; and (iv) land used for the grazing of cattle; (f) “Authority” means the Land Acquisition and Rehabilitation and Resettlement Authority established under section 51; (i) “cost of acquisition” includes— (i) amount of compensation, any enhanced compensation and interest payable thereon; (ii) demurrage paid for damages caused to standing crops; (v) cost of rehabilitation and resettlement in accordance with this Act; (u) “market value” means the value of land determined in accordance with section 26;
Views: 8252 Indian Law School
PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT
 
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PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT Every contract consists of reciprocal promises. The parties to contract must either perform or offer to perform their respective promises. Offer to perform (Tender) 1. Unconditional 2. Whole quantity or whole obligation (not in installment) 3. Reasonable opportunity of inspection. 4. Performance in favour of other party or his representative. (not to third person) 5. Proper time and place 6. As per the terms. Joint promisor- • Joint promisor have to perform jointly and several. • If one of the joint promisor dies then his legal representative will perform. • If all of the joy promisor dies then legal representative of all will perform. • Promisee can take full amount to one promisor or all promisor. Time is the essence- Party can reject the contract and claim compensation. For example wedding date, birthday function, dealing with Jewellery etc. Reciprocal promise (Both parties have to perform)- • Mutual and concurrent (simultaneously) • Conditional and dependent. For example buy ticket to travel. • Mutual and independent.
Views: 25957 LAW Notes
Hindi meaningof Confession
 
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Formal words in English: Speak smartly http://www.amazon.com/gp/offer-listing/152093906X/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_ol_1tibzbAXZW4AK via @amazon Formal words in English: Speak smartly by Sarat Kumar https://www.amazon.com/dp/B06XWDT9RV/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_x_2nibzbV85XZ7R via @amazon Best Spoken English: Speak Fluently by Sarat Kumar https://www.amazon.com/dp/1521134952/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_x_Uvibzb4G4YE35 via @amazon Best Spoken English: Speak Fluently by Sarat Kumar https://www.amazon.com/dp/B072KXY4GK/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_x_twibzb8J01TY2 via @amazon Latest words in English: speak smartly by Sarat Kumar https://www.amazon.com/dp/B06XKFZ8VG/ref=cm_sw_r_tw_dp_x_lxibzbQ9J7VDD via @amazon
Views: 6215 sarat bobby
Mining law | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Mining law 00:00:21 1 Topics 00:00:30 1.1 Ownership 00:01:08 1.2 Support 00:01:40 2 By country 00:01:56 2.1 Mining law in German-speaking countries 00:03:20 2.1.1 Today 00:04:29 2.2 Mining law in English-speaking countries 00:05:34 2.3 Mining law in French-speaking countries 00:05:49 3 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Mining law is the branch of law relating to the legal requirements affecting minerals and mining. Mining law covers several basic topics, including the ownership of the mineral resource and who can work them. Mining is also affected by various regulations regarding the health and safety of miners, as well as the environmental impact of mining.
Views: 1 Subhajit Sahu
Mining industry | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining 00:01:48 1 History 00:01:57 1.1 Prehistoric mining 00:03:13 1.2 Ancient Egypt 00:04:23 1.3 Ancient Greek and Roman mining 00:08:00 1.4 Medieval Europe 00:12:01 1.5 Classical Philippine civilization 00:13:12 1.6 The Americas 00:16:14 1.7 Modern period 00:17:49 2 Mine development and lifecycle 00:20:32 3 Mining techniques 00:22:00 3.1 Surface mining 00:23:03 3.2 Underground mining 00:24:32 3.3 Highwall mining 00:26:16 4 Machines 00:27:38 5 Processing 00:30:22 6 Environmental effects 00:34:25 6.1 Waste 00:36:53 6.2 Renewable energy and mining 00:37:36 7 Mining industry 00:41:45 7.1 Corporate classifications 00:42:33 7.2 Regulation and governance 00:46:31 7.3 World Bank 00:48:38 8 Safety 00:52:16 9 Records 00:54:44 10 Metal reserves and recycling Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.998962699879125 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are generally low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves.
Views: 51 wikipedia tts
Myron C. Fagan - Les Illuminati et le CFR (1967)
 
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- S'abonner à la chaîne: https://bit.ly/2KxjCrQ Il s'agit d'un enregistrement de 1967 de Myron Coureval Fagan, pour lequel j'ai mis des sous-titres en français. J'ai moi-même corrigé la traduction jusqu'à 23 minutes, ensuite c'est une traduction automatique. Aussi, ce qui serait bien c'est que vous m'aidiez à finir la traduction des sous-titres ; ) ici: http://www.youtube.com/timedtext_video?v=JSCaITn9Gzc&ref=share Myron Coureval Fagan (31 octobre 1887 - 12 mai 1972) est un dramaturge, réalisateur et producteur de cinéma américain. Il fut également essayiste de théories du complot, anticommuniste fervent et l'un des premiers à parler du complot Illuminati. Myron Coureval Fagan fut le mari de Minna Gombell. Il fut inspiré par John Thomas Flynn pour ses essais conspirationnistes. Voici une liste de ses oeuvres: Films : 1926 Mismates (scénariste) 1929 The Great Power (scénariste et réalisateur) 1931 Smart Woman (scénariste, adapté de sa pièce Nancy's Private Affair) 1931 A Holy Terror (scénariste) Livres et articles : 1932 Nancy's Private Affair, A comedy in three acts 1932 Peter Flies High, A comedy in three acts 1934 The Little Spitfire, A comedy-drama in three acts 1948 Red stars in Hollywood: Their helpers, fellow travelers, and co-conspirators 1948 Moscow over Hollywood (published by R.C. Cary, Los Angeles) 1949 Moscow marches on in Hollywood (News-bulletin/Cinema Educational Guild) 1950 Reds in the Anti-Defamation League (Cinema Educational Guild. News-bulletin, May 1950) 1950 Reds in "crusade for freedom!" (News bulletin) 1950 Hollywood reds are on the run! 1950 Documentation of the Red stars in Hollywood. 1950 Reds in the Anti-Defamation League. 1951 What is this thing called anti-semitism? (News-bulletin / Cinema Educational Guild) 1951 Saga of Operation Survival (News-bulletin / Cinema Educational Guild) 1953 Hollywood backs U.N. conspiracy 1954 Red Treason on Broadway (Cinema Educational Guild) 1956 United Nations "on trial" in Washington, D.C (News-bulletin) 1962 Must we have a Cuban "Pearl Harbor?" (News-bulletin / Cinema Educational Guild) 1964 How Hollywood is brainwashing the people (News-bulletin / Cinema Educational Guild) 1964 Civil rights, most sinister tool of the great conspiracy (News-Bulletin) 1965 How greatest white nations were mongrelized, then negroized: That is the fate planned for the American people (News-bulletin) 1966 The UN already secret government of U.S.!: Our recall project can smash it! (News-bulletin) 1966 The complete truth about the "United Nations" conspiracy! (News-bulletin) 1967 You must decide fate of our nation!!!: The Negro (CFR) plot is our greatest menace! (News-bulletin) 1969 Proofs of the great conspiracy and how to smash it!!! (News-bulletin / Cinema Educational Guild) * * * * * * * * - Mes documentaires, ebooks: https://sellfy.com/documents_rares_inedits - Chaîne DailyMotion: https://www.dailymotion.com/documents_rares_inedits - Chaîne Minds: https://www.minds.com/Documents_Rares_Inedits - Chaîne Pewtube: https://pewtube.com/user/Docus_Rares_Inedits - Soutenir mon travail: https://patreon.com/documents_rares_inedits - Faire un don (Paypal): https://bit.ly/2x1gX74 - Aidez-moi à traduire les vidéos de la chaîne ! : https://bit.ly/2K3KHkS ----------------------------------------------------------------------- URL de la vidéo:
ch 11) Robber Barons And Rebels
 
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chapter 11: A People's History (Of The United States) Howard Zinn. ~ Chapter 11, "Robber Barons and Rebels" covers the rise of industrial corporations such as the railroads and banks and their transformation into the nation's dominant institutions, with corruption resulting in both industry and government. Also covered are the popular movements and individuals that opposed corruption, such as the Knights of Labor, Edward Bellamy, the Socialist Labor Party, the Haymarket martyrs, the Homestead strikers, Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman, Eugene V. Debs, the American Railway Union, the Farmers' Alliance, and the Populist Party.
Views: 17844 andi burridge
Environmentalism: From the Control of Nature to Partnership with Carolyn Merchant
 
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In the Scientific Revolution of the 17th century, the long term goal of the betterment of humankind through the control of nature was a significant advancement. For the 21st century, however, the ethic of control is giving way to one of partnership with the natural world. UC Berkeley Professor Carolyn Merchant discusses how the partnership ethic entails a viable, sustainable relationship in which connections to the global world are recognized through science, technology, and ecological exchanges. Series: "UC Berkeley Graduate Council Lectures" [7/2010] [Humanities] [Science] [Show ID: 19243]
Critical Analysis Part 2
 
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For our Critical Analysis for LAW4250, Feaben Tefera, Isabelle Bloomfield and Alicia Crossley have analysed fertility tracker apps and ethical, global and legal concerns they raise regarding gender politics, privacy and consent. Full title: THE BIG DATA GOLDMINE OF WOMEN’S HEALTH: HOW PERIOD APPS HAVE BROKEN OUT THEIR PICKAXES This is Part 2, with a length of 3:01 minutes. This follows on from Part 1 of the presentation with a length of 4:58 minutes, adding up to a total of 7:59 minutes. (excluding 4 seconds of promotional Powtoon footage at the end of each clip) To find out more and look at our references: (see part 1 for more!) Lupton, Deborah and Sarah Pedersen. “What is happening with your body and your baby: Australian women’s use of pregnancy and parenting apps”. (Canberra: News & Media Research Centre, University of Canberra). Mayer, Jonathan and Mitchell, John, (2012). Third-Party Web Tracking: Policy and Technology. University Stanford, CA. McCarthy, Jack, (2015). How Many Health Apps Actually Matter? Retrieved from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/how-many-health-apps-actually-matter. Meyer, David (2014). Social media terms and conditions are way too complex, say UK MPs. Retrieved at https://www.benton.org/headlines/social-media-terms-and-conditions-are-way-too-complex-say-uk-mps Nathan J. Davis, Presumed Assent: The Judicial Acceptance of Clickwrap, 22 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 577 (2007). Retrieved at http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/btlj/vol22/iss1/29 National Public Radio (2012) To Read All Those Web Privacy Policies, Just Take a Month Off Work. Retrieved at https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2012/04/19/150905465/to-read-all-those-web-privacy-policies-just-take-a-month-off-work Office of the Australian Information Commissioner. Online Behavioural Advertising – know your options. Retrieved at https://www.oaic.gov.au/individuals/privacy-fact-sheets/general/privacy-fact-sheet-4-online-behavioural-advertising-know-your-options Peterson, Andrea (2016). Watch Out, Ladies: Your period-tracking app could be leaking personal data. Washington Post. Retrieved at https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2016/08/03/how-your-period-tracking-app-could-leak-your-most-intimate-information/?utm_term=.b1a94fc20311 Quintin, Cooper (2017). The Pregnancy Panopticon. Retrieved at https://www.eff.org/files/2017/07/27/the_pregnancy_panopticon.pdf Raysman, Richard (2012). Enforceability of Clickwrap Agreement Called into Question - Checklist for Best Practices in Electronic Contracting. Retrieved at https://www.hklaw.com/digitaltechblog/Enforceability-of-Clickwrap-Agreement-Called-into-Question----Checklist-for-Best-Practices-in-Electronic-Contracting-11-07-2012/ Rundle, Michael (2012). Instagram Reverses Terms and Conditions After Users’ Outrage. Retrieved at http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2012/12/21/instagram-reverses-terms-decision_n_2343372.html Science and Technology Committee – Fourth Report: Responsible Use of Data. (2014). Retrieved at https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201415/cmselect/cmsctech/245/24502.htm Shearman, Sarah, (2016). Are Period Tracking Apps an Invasion to Women’s Privacy?  Retrieved from https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/london-life/are-period-tracking-apps-an-invasion-to-womens-privacy-a3273916.html. Shemkus, Sarah, (2015). Fitness Trackers Are Popular Among Insurers and Employers – But is Your Data Safe? Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/apr/17/fitness-trackers-wearables-insurance-employees-jobs-health-data?CMP=aff_1432&awc=5795_1515331602_b7f6a6fe34a3038d7daec336fb8be4f4. Shermach, Kelly, (2006). Data Mining: Where Legality and Ethics Rarely Meet. Retrieved from https://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/52616.html?wlc=1245363355. Technology Review (2014). The Murky World of Third Party Web Tracking. Retrieved at https://www.technologyreview.com/s/530741/the-murky-world-of-third-party-web-tracking/ Turow, Joseph, Michael Hennessy and Nora Draper, (2015). The Tradeoff Fallacy: How Marketers Are Misrepresenting American Consumers and Opening Them Up to Exploitation. Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved at https://www.asc.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/TradeoffFallacy_1.pdf Weigel, Moira, (2016). ‘Fitbit For Your Period’: The Rise of Fertility Tracking. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2016/mar/23/fitbit-for-your-period-the-rise-of-fertility-tracking?CMP=aff_1432&awc=5795_1515327221_23d14ce40acbe13708065a80cb4009f0. Toll (FGCT) Pty Ltd v Alphapharm Pty Ltd (2004) 219 CLR 165. Retrieved at https://www.ato.gov.au/law/view/document?DocID=JUD%2F*2004*HCA52%2F00001 L’Estrange v F Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 KB 394. Read a summary at https://wikijuris.net/cases/lestrange_v_f_graucob_1934 ProCD, Inc. v Zeidenberg (1996) 86 F.ed 1447. Retrieved at https://advance.lexis.com/api/permalink/c3c0bcb1-2787-4b1a-aae0-2e0239a283f8/?context=1201008
Coercion: The Power to Hurt in International Politics
 
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Peter Krause, Associate Professor, Political Science Timothy Crawford, Associate Professor, Political Science From the rising significance of non-state actors to the increasing influence of regional powers, the nature and conduct of international politics has arguably changed dramatically since the height of the Cold War. Yet much of the literature on deterrence and compellence continues to draw (whether implicitly or explicitly) upon assumptions and precepts formulated in-and predicated upon-politics in a state-centric, bipolar world. Coercion moves beyond these somewhat hidebound premises and examines the critical issue of coercion in the 21st century, with a particular focus on new actors, strategies and objectives in this very old bargaining game. The chapters in this volume examine intra-state, inter-state, and transnational coercion and deterrence as well as both military and non-military instruments of persuasion, thus expanding our understanding of coercion for conflict in the 21st century. Scholars have analyzed the causes, dynamics, and effects of coercion for decades, but previous works have principally focused on a single state employing conventional military means to pressure another state to alter its behavior. In contrast, this volume captures fresh developments, both theoretical and policy relevant. This chapters in this volume focus on tools (terrorism, sanctions, drones, cyber warfare, intelligence, and forced migration), actors (insurgents, social movements, and NGOs) and mechanisms (trilateral coercion, diplomatic and economic isolation, foreign-imposed regime change, coercion of nuclear proliferators, and two-level games) that have become more prominent in recent years, but which have yet to be extensively or systematically addressed in either academic or policy literatures.
ch 10) The Other Civil War
 
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chapter 10: A People's History (Of The United States) Howard Zinn. ~ Chapter 10, "The Other Civil War", covers the Anti-Rent movement, the Dorr Rebellion, the Flour Riot of 1837, the Molly Maguires, the rise of labor unions, the Lowell girls movement, and other class struggles centered around the various depressions of the 19th century. He describes the abuse of government power by corporations and the efforts by workers to resist those abuses.
Views: 9965 andi burridge
Royalty Accounts, Accountancy  (B.com, M.com, CA, CS, CMA )Gurukpo
 
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Mr. Shivraj Singh, Assistant Professor, Biyani Girls College explained about term used in Royalty Agreement, Recruitment of Royalty Accounting treatment.. http://www.gurukpo.com, http://www.biyanicolleges.org
Views: 94006 Guru Kpo
GCSE American West 1840-1895 Revision
 
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A revision resource for Year 11 taking the American West Exam this year. This gives an overview of some of the main themes to help refresh your mind before the exam. The words of the song are relevant too as they cover the story of a young Indian warrior struggling and failing to keep his culture alive - 'Indian Sunset' by Elton John, 1971.
Views: 24796 GatewayHistory
The Electricity Act, 2003 | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Electricity_Act,_2003 00:00:28 1 Background 00:03:03 2 Generation 00:04:43 3 Distribution 00:05:16 4 Key features 00:08:35 5 Role of CEA 00:10:21 6 Left Parties Opposition 00:11:09 7 Amendments 00:15:47 8 Exceptions 00:16:16 9 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8238769300904747 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-A "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Electricity Act, 2003 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to transform the power sector in India. The act covers major issues involving generation, distribution, transmission and trading in power. While some of the sections have already been enacted and are yielding benefits, there are a few other sections that are yet to be fully enforced till date.
Views: 92 wikipedia tts
Gold Coast (British colony) | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Gold Coast (British colony) Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957. The first Europeans to arrive at the coast were the Portuguese in 1471. They encountered a variety of African kingdoms, some of which controlled substantial deposits of gold in the soil. The kingdoms had a tradition of enslaving captives taken in warfare. Some were sold to Arab traders from North Africa and transported to Islamic Mediterranean civilizations. In 1482, the Portuguese came to the continent for increased trade. They built the Castle of Elmina, the first European settlement on the Gold Coast. From here they acquired slaves and gold in trade for European goods, such as metal knives, beads, mirrors, rum, and guns. News of the successful trading spread quickly, and British, Dutch, Danish, Prussian and Swedish traders arrived as well. The European traders built several forts along the coastline. The Gold Coast had long been a name for the region used by Europeans because of the large gold resources found in the area. The slave trade was the principal exchange and major part of the economy for many years. In this period, European nations began to explore and colonize the Americas. Soon the Portuguese and Spanish began to export African slaves to the Caribbean, and North and South America. The Dutch and British also entered the slave trade, at first supplying markets in the Caribbean and on the Caribbean coast of South America. The Royal Trading Company was established by the Crown in 1752 to lead its trading in Africa. It was replaced by the African Company of Merchants, which led the British trading efforts into the early 19th century. In 1821 the British government withdrew their charter and seized privately held lands along the coast. In 1867 the government formed the British Gold Coast colony, after having taken over the remaining interests of other European countries. They purchased and incorporated the Danish Gold Coast in 1850 and the Dutch Gold Coast, including Fort Elmina, in 1872. Britain steadily expanded its colony through the invasion and subjection of local kingdoms as well, particularly the Ashanti and Fante confederacies. The Ashanti people had controlled much of the territory of Ghana before the Europeans arrived and were often in conflict with them. In the 21st century they continue to constitute the largest ethnic community in Ghana. Four wars, the Anglo-Ashanti Wars, were fought between the Ashanti (Asante) and the British, who were sometimes allied with the Fante. During the First Anglo-Ashanti War (1822–24), the two groups fought because of a disagreement over an Ashanti chief and slavery. The British had abolished the Atlantic slave trade but kept the institution in its colonies until 1834. Tensions increased in 1874 during the Second Ashanti War (1873–74) when the British sacked the Ashanti capital of Kumasi. The Third Ashanti War (1893–94) occurred because the new Ashanti ruler Asantehene wanted to exercise his new title. From 1895–96 the British and Ashanti fought in the Fourth and final Ashanti War, where the Ashanti fought for and lost their independence. In 1900 the Ashanti Uprising took place. The British suppressed the violence and captured of the city of Kumasi. At the end of this last Ashanti War, the territory of the Ashanti people became a British protectorate on 1 January 1902. By 1901, British had established a colony incorporating all of the Gold Coast, with its kingdoms and tribes considered a single unit. The British exploited and exported a variety of natural resources such as gold, metal ores, diamonds, ivory, pepper, timber, grain and cocoa. The British colonists built railways and a complex transport infrastructure to support the shipment of such commodity goods. This has formed the basis for the transport infrastructure in modern-day Ghana. They also built Weste ...
Views: 106 wikipedia tts
Ganga Saran vs. Firm Ram Charan Ram Gopal
 
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Reference – A.I.R. 1952, Supreme Court 39. Subject – In this case the circumstances under which Sections 32 and 56 of the Indian Contract Act are applicable, have been explained.
Swimming pool, Palm Beach
 
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SUMMARY The film, photographed from a single-camera position, shows a swimming pool with a white building on the far side. Several persons in bathing suits dive into the water from a springboard, as well as from the balcony above. NOTES Copyright: American Mutoscope & Biograph Company; 13Feb05; H56666. Cameraman, G. W. Bitzer. Filmed February 3, 1905 in Palm Beach, Fla. SUBJECTS Swimming. Actuality--Shorts. RELATED NAMES Bitzer, G. W., 1872-1944, camera. American Mutoscope and Biograph Company. Paper Print Collection (Library of Congress) DIGITAL ID awal 2212 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.mbrsmi/awal.2212
Views: 986 LibraryOfCongress
The River of Healing
 
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On December 4, 2012, the Union of Ontario Indians HIV/AIDS program will launch a new video called "The River of Healing." The Union of Ontario Indians HIV/AIDS program coordinator Jody Cotter produced the video that focuses on harm reduction in drug use. "We focus on positive solutions such as youth prevention programs and strategies that help educate our people on the prevention of transmittable diseases such as Hepatitis C and HIV through unsafe drug use," says Cotter. "The video emphasizes the positive effects, such as healing, that can be brought about through effective methods of harm reduction. The aim of this video is to reduce the stigma and discrimination associated with drug use in our communities." The video launch is in conjunction with the HIV/AIDS "Little Spirit Moon" conference held December 4-5 in Toronto. Produced by The Union of Ontario Indians HIV/AIDS program in collaboration with Regan Pictures, The River of Healing features the participation of the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network, the Ontario Aboriginal HIV/ AIDS Strategy, Nurture North, the AIDS Committee of North Bay and Area, and others impacted by HIV/AIDS. Funding for The River of Healing was provided by Health Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Health AIDS Bureau. For more information about the Union of Ontario Indians HIV/AIDS program, visit http://www.anishinabek.ca/hiv-aids.asp
Views: 5724 Anishinabek Nation
Sherlock Holmes | The Valley of Fear Audiobook by A. Conan Doyle | Full audiobook with subtitles
 
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Receiving a mysterious cypher message from a Fred Porlock, apparent agent of the infamous Professor Moriarty, Holmes and Watson set about deciphering the message, taking them into the mysterious murder of John Douglas. The connection between the murder and the message from Porlock creates the basis for this new Sherlock mystery, the last novel written by Doyle featuring the famous detective. - Summary by David Clarke Genre(s): Detective Fiction The Valley of Fear (Version 3) Sir Arthur Conan DOYLE CHAPTERS: Part 1: The Tragedy of Birlstone 0:19 - Chapter 1: The Warning 21:24 - Chapter 2: Sherlock Holmes Discourses 38:45 - Chapter 3: The Tragedy of Birlstone 59:56 - Chapter 4: Darkness 01:23:36 - Chapter 5: The People of the Drama 01:48:46 - Chapter 6: A Dawning Light 02:17:15 - Chapter 7: The Solution Part 2: The Scowrers 02:52:54 - Chapter 1: The Man 03:12:18 - Chapter 2: The Bodymaster 03:47:53 - Chapter 3: Lodge 341, Vermissa 04:24:09 - Chapter 4: The Valley of Fear 04:46:44 - Chapter 5: The Darkest Hour 05:16:02 - Chapter 6: Danger 05:36:48 - Chapter 7: The Trapping of Birdy Edwards Best Librivox Audiobooks ; Our Custom URL : https://www.youtube.com/c/AudiobookAudiobooks Subscribe To Our Channel: https://www.youtube.com/c/AudiobookAudiobooks?sub_confirmation=1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sherlock Holmes Audio Book Audiobooks All Rights Reserved. This is a Librivox recording. All Librivox recordings are in the public domain. For more information or to volunteer visit librivox.org.
The Valley of Fear Audiobook by A. Conan Doyle | Audiobooks Youtube Free | Sherlock Holmes Audiobook
 
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Receiving a mysterious cypher message from a Fred Porlock, apparent agent of the infamous Professor Moriarty, Holmes and Watson set about deciphering the message, taking them into the mysterious murder of John Douglas. The connection between the murder and the message from Porlock creates the basis for this new Sherlock mystery, the last novel written by Doyle featuring the famous detective. - Summary by David Clarke The Valley of Fear (Version 3) Sir Arthur Conan DOYLE Genre(s): Detective Fiction
Mining | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining 00:01:51 1 History 00:02:00 1.1 Prehistoric mining 00:03:18 1.2 Ancient Egypt 00:04:31 1.3 Ancient Greek and Roman mining 00:08:15 1.4 Medieval Europe 00:12:23 1.5 Classical Philippine civilization 00:13:36 1.6 The Americas 00:16:44 1.7 Modern period 00:18:22 2 Mine development and life cycle 00:21:09 3 Mining techniques 00:22:39 3.1 Surface mining 00:23:44 3.2 Underground mining 00:25:16 3.3 Highwall mining 00:27:02 4 Machines 00:28:27 5 Processing 00:31:18 6 Environmental effects 00:35:27 6.1 Waste 00:38:00 6.2 Renewable energy and mining 00:38:45 7 Mining industry 00:43:04 7.1 Corporate classifications 00:43:54 7.2 Regulation and governance 00:47:59 7.3 World Bank 00:50:07 8 Safety 00:53:52 9 Records 00:56:26 10 Metal reserves and recycling Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9838512602070575 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-D "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or feasibly created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water. Mining of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed. De Re Metallica, Georgius Agricola, 1550, Book I, Para. 1Mining operations usually create a negative environmental impact, both during the mining activity and after the mine has closed. Hence, most of the world's nations have passed regulations to decrease the impact. Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines. Levels of metals recycling are generally low. Unless future end-of-life recycling rates are stepped up, some rare metals may become unavailable for use in a variety of consumer products. Due to the low recycling rates, some landfills now contain higher concentrations of metal than mines themselves.
Views: 10 wikipedia tts
Historical Materialism  | Historical Materialism Explained
 
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Historical materialism is a methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of deterministic laws. This was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history. It is principally a theory of history according to which the material conditions of a society's way of producing and reproducing the means of human existence or, in Marxist terms, the union of its productive capacity and social relations of production, fundamentally determine its organization and development. ………………………………………………………………………………….. Sources: Text: Text of this video has been taken from Wikipedia, which is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License Background Music: Evgeny Teilor, https://www.jamendo.com/track/1176656/oceans The Lounge: http://www.bensound.com/royalty-free-music/jazz Images: www.pixabay.com www.openclipart.com …………………………………………………………………………………..
Views: 743 Free Audio Books
REVISED: (CC) The Lively Odyssey of the "John Brown" Courthouse by Jim Surkamp
 
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Made possible with the generous support of American Public University System, providing an affordable, quality, online education. The video and post do not reflect any modern-day policies or positions of American Public University System, and their content is intended to encourage discussion and better understanding of the past. More http://apus.edu Summary From its creation in 1836, this storied courthouse was the focus of the world during the trial of the John Brown raiders in October-November, 1859; then a casualtyr of shells and minie balls October 18, 1863, then again August 22nd, 1864, and scavenged constantly by souvenir-hunting Union passers-through, reducing it to a roofless, nearly floorless wreck in 1865 - as one wrote “a cesspool from which hope would spring eternal.” In a herculean effort of defiance and grit, the townspeople scraped together some $20,000 to build it again and eventually would get all the county legal functions back into this courthouse from the new opulent, magisterial courthouse built in Shepherdstown by Rezin Davis Shepherd. Then it achieved greatness by having its second treason trial - said to be the only American courthouse with that pedigree - with the trial of miners leader, Bill Blizzard and many others, in 1922. Shana Aisenberg (http://shanasongs.com) once again provides her rich sensitivity playing synthecizer, 12-string guitar, and banjo. Shana can be reached for lessons, gigs and CDs, at her website. All these recordings are under her copyright. Ardyth Gilbertson provides her beautiful singing of “Down in the Valley” Go to civilwarscholars.com for 700K of footnoted content and 12K images to accompany these videos made possible with the support of American Public University System more at http://apus.edu Go to civilwarscholars.com for 700K of footnoted content and 12K images to accompany these videos made possible with the support of American Public University System more at http://apus.edu
Views: 85 Jim Surkamp
SILK ROAD - WikiVidi Documentary
 
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The Silk Road or Silk Route was an ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction originally through regions of Eurasia connecting the East and West and stretching from the Korean peninsula and Japan to the Mediterranean Sea. The Silk Road concept refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting Asia and Europe. The overland Steppe route stretching through the Eurasian steppe is considered the ancestor to the Silk Road. While the term is of modern coinage, the Silk Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning during the Han dynasty . The Han dynasty expanded Central Asian sections of the trade routes around 114 BCE, largely through missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy, Zhang Qian. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route. Trade on the Silk Road playe... http://www.wikividi.com ____________________________________ Shortcuts to chapters: 00:02:29: Name 00:04:34: Chinese and Central Asian contacts 00:08:12: Persian Royal Road 00:08:52: Hellenistic era 00:10:30: Chinese exploration of Central Asia 00:19:10: Roman Empire 00:23:02: Byzantine Empire 00:26:50: Tang dynasty reopens the route 00:29:41: Medieval 00:33:20: Islamic era and the Silk Road 00:35:54: Mongol age 00:38:52: Decline and disintegration 00:39:58: New Silk Road 00:42:34: Routes 00:42:55: Northern route 00:44:37: Southern route 00:45:57: Southwestern route 00:48:02: Maritime route 00:48:59: Cultural exchanges 00:50:33: Transmission of Christianity 00:51:01: Transmission of Buddhism 00:57:13: Transmission of art ____________________________________ Copyright WikiVidi. Licensed under Creative Commons. Wikipedia link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silk_Road
Robert M. La Follette Sr. | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Robert M. La Follette Sr. 00:03:15 1 Early life 00:05:00 2 Early political career 00:05:09 2.1 House of Representatives 00:06:51 2.2 Gubernatorial candidate 00:09:46 3 Governor of Wisconsin 00:13:25 4 Senator 00:13:34 4.1 Roosevelt administration 00:16:46 4.2 Taft administration 00:18:23 4.3 1912 presidential election 00:21:25 4.4 Wilson administration 00:24:41 4.5 Harding administration 00:26:35 5 1924 presidential campaign 00:31:49 6 Death 00:32:11 7 Legacy 00:34:04 8 Memorials Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Robert Marion La Follette Sr. (June 14, 1855 – June 18, 1925) was an American lawyer and politician. He represented Wisconsin in both chambers of Congress and served as the Governor of Wisconsin. A Republican for most of his career, he ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in the 1924 presidential election. Historian John D. Buenker describes La Follette as "the most celebrated figure in Wisconsin history." Born and raised in Wisconsin, La Follette won election as the Dane County District Attorney in 1880. Four years later, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he was friendly with party leaders like William McKinley. After losing his seat in the 1890 election, La Follette embraced progressivism and built up a coalition of disaffected Republicans. He sought election as governor in 1896 and 1898 before winning the 1900 gubernatorial election. As governor of Wisconsin, La Follette compiled a progressive record, implementing primary elections and tax reform. La Follette won re-election in 1902 and 1904, but in 1905 the legislature elected him to the United States Senate. He emerged as a national progressive leader in the senate, often clashing with conservatives like Nelson Aldrich. He initially supported President William Howard Taft, but broke with Taft after the latter failed to push a reduction in tariff rates. He challenged Taft for the Republican presidential nomination in the 1912 presidential election, but his candidacy was overshadowed by that of former President Theodore Roosevelt. La Follette's refusal to support Roosevelt alienated many progressives, and, though La Follette continued to serve in the Senate, he lost his stature as the leader of that chamber's progressive Republicans. La Follette supported some of President Woodrow Wilson's policies, but he broke with the president over foreign policy. During World War I, La Follette was one of the most outspoken opponents of the administration's domestic and foreign policies. With the Republican Party and the Democratic Party each nominating conservative candidates in the 1924 presidential election, left-wing groups coalesced behind La Follette's third party candidacy. With the support of the Socialist Party, farmer's groups, labor unions, and others, La Follette briefly appeared to be a serious threat to unseat Republican President Calvin Coolidge. La Follette stated that his chief goal was to break the "combined power of the private monopoly system over the political and economic life of the American people," and he called for government ownership of railroads and electric utilities, cheap credit for farmers, the outlawing of child labor, stronger laws to help labor unions, and protections for civil liberties. His diverse coalition proved difficult to manage, and the Republicans rallied to claim victory in the 1924 election. La Follette won 16.6% of the popular vote, one of the best third party performances in U.S. history. He died shortly after the presidential election, but his sons, Robert M. La Follette Jr. and Philip La Follette, succeeded him as progressive leaders in Wisconsin.
Views: 38 wikipedia tts
John Ruskin | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: John Ruskin 00:02:23 1 Early life (1819–1846) 00:02:35 1.1 Genealogy 00:04:04 1.2 Childhood and education 00:05:47 1.3 Travel 00:07:39 1.4 First publications of Ruskin 00:08:55 1.5 Oxford 00:11:16 1.6 iModern Painters I/i (1843) 00:14:04 1.7 1845 tour and iModern Painters II/i (1846) 00:16:16 2 Middle life (1847–1869) 00:16:28 2.1 Marriage to Effie Gray 00:17:52 2.2 Architecture 00:18:49 2.3 iThe Stones of Venice/i 00:21:30 2.4 The Pre-Raphaelites 00:26:20 2.5 Ruskin and education 00:28:31 2.6 iModern Painters III/i and iIV/i 00:29:24 2.7 Public lecturer 00:31:08 2.8 Turner Bequest 00:32:18 2.9 Religious "unconversion" 00:33:22 2.10 Social critic and reformer: iUnto This Last/i 00:39:51 2.11 Lectures in the 1860s 00:41:44 3 Later life (1869–1900) 00:41:56 3.1 Oxford's first Slade Professor of Fine Art 00:45:16 3.2 iFors Clavigera/i and the Whistler libel case 00:46:52 3.3 The Guild of St George 00:50:10 3.4 Rose La Touche 00:52:00 3.5 Travel guides 00:53:19 3.6 Return to belief 00:54:18 3.7 Final writings 00:56:10 3.8 Brantwood 00:58:45 3.9 Personal appearance 00:59:51 4 Legacy 01:00:00 4.1 International 01:01:36 4.2 Art, architecture and literature 01:02:41 4.3 Craft and conservation 01:03:11 4.4 Society and education 01:05:00 4.5 Politics and economics 01:06:01 4.6 Ruskin in the 21st-century 01:08:58 5 Theory and criticism 01:10:17 5.1 Art and design criticism 01:16:46 5.2 Historic preservation 01:18:21 5.3 Social theory 01:20:22 6 Controversies 01:20:31 6.1 Turner's erotic drawings 01:21:13 6.2 Sexuality 01:25:49 6.3 Common law of business balance 01:28:02 7 Definitions 01:30:25 8 Fictional portrayals 01:34:49 9 Paintings 01:34:58 10 Select bibliography 01:35:32 10.1 Works by Ruskin 01:44:23 10.2 Selected diaries and letters 01:45:53 10.3 Selected editions of Ruskin still in print Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, as well as an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist. He wrote on subjects as varied as geology, architecture, myth, ornithology, literature, education, botany and political economy. His writing styles and literary forms were equally varied. He penned essays and treatises, poetry and lectures, travel guides and manuals, letters and even a fairy tale. He also made detailed sketches and paintings of rocks, plants, birds, landscapes, and architectural structures and ornamentation. The elaborate style that characterised his earliest writing on art gave way in time to plainer language designed to communicate his ideas more effectively. In all of his writing, he emphasised the connections between nature, art and society. He was hugely influential in the latter half of the 19th century and up to the First World War. After a period of relative decline, his reputation has steadily improved since the 1960s with the publication of numerous academic studies of his work. Today, his ideas and concerns are widely recognised as having anticipated interest in environmentalism, sustainability and craft. Ruskin first came to widespread attention with the first volume of Modern Painters (1843), an extended essay in defence of the work of J. M. W. Turner in which he argued that the principal role of the artist is "truth to nature". From the 1850s, he championed the Pre-Raphaelites who were influenced by his ideas. His work increasingly focused on social and political issues. Unto This Last (1860, 1862) marked the shift in emphasis. In 1869, Ruskin became the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at the University of Oxford, where he established the Ruskin School of Drawing. In 1871, he began his monthly "letters to the workmen and labourers of Great Britain", published under the title Fors Clavigera (1871–1884). In the course of this complex and deeply personal work, he developed the principles underlying his ideal society. As a result, he founded the Guild ...
Views: 109 wikipedia tts
Nelson W. Aldrich | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Nelson W. Aldrich 00:02:13 1 Family background 00:02:48 2 Early career 00:03:38 3 Early political career 00:04:15 4 U.S. Senate 00:05:28 4.1 National finance 00:07:01 4.2 Federal Reserve Act 00:07:52 4.3 Foreign affairs 00:08:41 5 Family prominence 00:09:32 6 Interests 00:09:57 7 Death and burial 00:10:15 8 Legacy 00:11:08 9 Congressional committee assignments 00:11:18 10 Notes 00:11:27 11 Further reading 00:13:37 12 External links Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Nelson Wilmarth Aldrich (; November 6, 1841 – April 16, 1915) was a prominent American politician and a leader of the Republican Party in the United States Senate, where he served from 1881 to 1911. By the 1890s he was one of the "Big Four" key Republicans who largely controlled the major decisions of the Senate, along with Orville H. Platt, William B. Allison and John Coit Spooner. Because of his impact on national politics and central position on the pivotal Senate Finance Committee, he was referred to by the press and public alike as the "General Manager of the Nation", dominating tariff and monetary policy in the first decade of the 20th century. Born in Foster, Rhode Island, Aldrich served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. After the war, he became a partner in a large wholesale grocery firm and won election to the Rhode Island House of Representatives. He served a single term in the United States House of Representatives before winning election to the Senate. In the Senate, he helped to create an extensive system of tariffs that protected American factories and farms from foreign competition, and he was a cosponsor of the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act. He also helped win Senate approval of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, which ended the Spanish–American War. Aldrich led the passage of the Aldrich–Vreeland Act, which established the National Monetary Commission to study the causes of the Panic of 1907. He served as chair of that commission, which drew up the Aldrich Plan as a basis for a reform of the financial regulatory system. The Aldrich Plan strongly influenced the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, which established the Federal Reserve System. Aldrich also sponsored the Sixteenth Amendment, which allowed for a direct federal income tax. Deeply committed to the efficiency model of the Progressive Era, he believed that his financial and trade policies would lead to greater efficiency. Reformers, however, denounced him as representative of the evils of big business. His daughter Abigail married into the Rockefeller family, and his descendants, including namesake Nelson A. Rockefeller, became powerful figures in American politics and banking.
Views: 35 wikipedia tts
Presidents of the United States on U.S. postage stamps | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Presidents of the United States on U.S. postage stamps Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Presidents of the United States have frequently appeared on U.S. postage stamps since the mid–1800s. The United States Post Office released its first two postage stamps in 1847, featuring George Washington on one, and Benjamin Franklin on the other . The advent of presidents on postage stamps has been definitive to U.S. postage stamp design since the first issues were released and set the precedent that U.S. stamp designs would follow for many generations. The paper postage stamp itself was born of utility (in England, 1840), as something simple and easy to use was needed to confirm that postage had been paid for an item of mail. People could purchase several stamps at one time and no longer had to make a special trip to pay for postage each time an item was mailed. The postage stamp design was usually printed from a fine engraving and were almost impossible to forge adequately. This is where the appearance of presidents on stamps was introduced. Moreover, the subject theme of a president, along with the honors associated with it, is what began to define the stamp issues in ways that took it beyond the physical postage stamp itself and is why people began to collect them. There exist entire series of stamp issues whose printing was inspired by the subject alone. The portrayals of Washington and Franklin on U.S. postage are among the most definitive of examples and have appeared on numerous postage stamps. The presidential theme in stamp designs would continue as the decades passed, each period issuing stamps with variations of the same basic presidential-portrait design theme. The portrayals of U.S. presidents on U.S. postage has remained a significant subject and design theme on definitive postage throughout most of U.S. stamp issuance history.Engraved portrayals of U.S. presidents were the only designs found on U.S. postage from 1847 until 1869, with the one exception of Benjamin Franklin, whose historical stature was comparable to that of a president, although his appearance was also an acknowledgement of his role as the first U. S. Postmaster General. During this period, the U.S. Post Office issued various postage stamps bearing the depictions of George Washington foremost, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, and Abraham Lincoln, the last of whom first appeared in 1866, one year after his death. After twenty-two years of issuing stamps with only presidents and Franklin, the Post Office in 1869 issued a series of eleven postage stamps that were generally regarded by the American public as being abruptly different from the previous issues and whose designs were considered at the time to be a break from the tradition of honoring American forefathers on the nation's postage stamps. These new issues had other nonpresidential subjects and a design style that was also different, one issue bearing a horse, another a locomotive, while others were depicted with nonpresidential themes. Washington and Lincoln were to be found only once in this series of eleven stamps, which some considered to be below par in design and image quality. As a result, this pictographic series was met with general disdain and proved so unpopular that the issues were consequently sold for only one year where remaining stocks were pulled from post offices across the United States.In 1870 the Post Office resumed its tradition of printing postage stamps with the portraits of American Presidents and Franklin but now added several other famous Americans, including Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, Alexander Hamilton and General Winfield Scott among other notable Americans. Indeed, the balance had now shifted somewhat; of the ten stamps issued in 1870, only four offered presidential images. Moreover, presidents also appeared on less than half of the denominations in the definitive sets of 1890, 1917, 1954 and 1965, while occupying only a slight major ...
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Illinois in the Gilded Age, 1866-1896: The Great Strike, 1877
 
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This video concerning the topic of the Great Strike, comes from the "Illinois in the Gilded Age, 1866-1896" website, which is a creation of Northern Illinois University Libraries' Digital Initiatives Unit: http://www.ulib.niu.edu/DigitalInitiatives/DigitalInitiatives.cfm The "Illinois in the Gilded Age" (http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage) site brings together primary source materials from a number of libraries, museums and archives, including the Newberry Library, the Chicago Historical Society and the Illinois State Library. While the site uses Illinois as its focal point, it also examines larger themes in the history of the United States during the Gilded Age, and can support the study of the period with rich materials details events of national significance. Please see the following page for the full text featured in this video: http://dig.lib.niu.edu/gildedage/narr4.html
Views: 6486 niulibdiglab
Henri Poincaré | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Henri Poincaré Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Jules Henri Poincaré (; French: [ɑ̃ʁi pwɛ̃kaʁe] (listen); 29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science. He is often described as a polymath, and in mathematics as "The Last Universalist," since he excelled in all fields of the discipline as it existed during his lifetime. As a mathematician and physicist, he made many original fundamental contributions to pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and celestial mechanics. He was responsible for formulating the Poincaré conjecture, which was one of the most famous unsolved problems in mathematics until it was solved in 2002–2003 by Grigori Perelman. In his research on the three-body problem, Poincaré became the first person to discover a chaotic deterministic system which laid the foundations of modern chaos theory. He is also considered to be one of the founders of the field of topology. Poincaré made clear the importance of paying attention to the invariance of laws of physics under different transformations, and was the first to present the Lorentz transformations in their modern symmetrical form. Poincaré discovered the remaining relativistic velocity transformations and recorded them in a letter to Hendrik Lorentz in 1905. Thus he obtained perfect invariance of all of Maxwell's equations, an important step in the formulation of the theory of special relativity. In 1905, Poincaré first proposed gravitational waves (ondes gravifiques) emanating from a body and propagating at the speed of light as being required by the Lorentz transformations. The Poincaré group used in physics and mathematics was named after him.
Views: 39 Shishir Kumar Sahu
Timeline of United States military operations | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Timeline of United States military operations 00:00:33 1 Extraterritorial and major domestic deployments 00:00:52 1.1 1775–1799 00:03:29 1.2 1800–1809 00:04:53 1.3 1810–1819 00:09:13 1.4 1820–1829 00:10:43 1.5 1830–1839 00:13:10 1.6 1840–1849 00:15:56 1.7 1850–1859 00:21:11 1.8 1860–1869 00:24:21 1.9 1870–1879 00:26:21 1.10 1880–1889 00:27:54 1.11 1890–1899 00:32:44 1.12 1900–1909 00:36:24 1.13 1910–1919 00:44:36 1.14 1920–1929 00:48:10 1.15 1930–1939 00:49:03 1.16 1940–1944 00:50:41 1.17 1945–1949 00:53:01 1.18 1950–1959 00:56:15 1.19 1960–1969 00:58:50 1.20 1970–1979 01:02:00 1.21 1980–1989 01:12:01 1.22 1990–1999 01:22:28 1.23 2000–2009 01:27:43 1.24 2010–present 01:34:18 2 Battles with the Native Americans 01:34:36 3 Relocation 01:35:09 4 Armed insurrections and slave revolts 01:37:14 5 Range wars 01:38:06 6 Bloody local feuds 01:38:25 7 Bloodless boundary disputes 01:39:13 8 Terrorist, paramilitary groups and guerrilla warfare 01:39:25 8.1 18th and 19th century 01:40:12 9 Labor–management disputes 01:40:47 10 State and national secession attempts 01:41:25 11 Riots and public disorder 01:41:48 12 Miscellaneous 01:43:01 12.1 Latter-day Saints 01:43:16 12.2 Republic of Texas 01:43:33 13 See also 01:43:42 14 Notes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= This timeline of United States government military operations is based on the Committee on International Relations (now known as the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs). Dates show the years in which U.S. government military units participated. Items in bold are the U.S. government wars most often considered to be major conflicts by historians and the general public. Note that instances where the U.S. government gave aid alone, with no military personnel involvement, are excluded, as are Central Intelligence Agency operations.
Views: 83 wikipedia tts
Arctic Horizons Part 1
 
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This video is about AH part 1
Views: 87 UNI -TV
History of Mexico | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: History of Mexico Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago, the territory had complex indigenous civilizations before being conquered and colonized by the Spanish in the 16th century. One of the important aspects of Mesoamerican civilizations was their development of a form of writing, so that Mexico's written history stretches back hundreds of years before the arrival of the Spaniards in 1519. This era before the arrival of Europeans is called variously the prehispanic era or the precolumbian era. The Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan became the Spanish capital Mexico City, which was and remains the most populous city in Mexico. From 1521, the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire incorporated the region into the Spanish Empire, with New Spain its colonial era name and Mexico City the center of colonial rule. It was built on the ruins of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan and became the capital of New Spain. During the colonial era, Mexico's long-established Mesoamerican civilizations mixed with European culture. Perhaps nothing better represents this hybrid background than Mexico's languages: the country is both the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and home to the largest number of Native American language speakers in North America. For three centuries Mexico was part of the Spanish Empire, whose legacy is a country with a Spanish-speaking, Catholic and largely Western culture. After a protracted struggle (1810–21) for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. A brief period of monarchy (1821–23), called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, established under a federal constitution in 1824. Legal racial categories were eliminated, abolishing the system of castas. Slavery was not abolished at independence in 1821 or with the constitution in 1824, but was eliminated in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. The Age of Santa Anna is the period of the late 1820s to the early 1850s that was dominated by criollo military-man-turned-president Antonio López de Santa Anna. In 1846, the Mexican–American War was provoked by the United States, ending two years later with Mexico ceding almost half of its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the United States. Even though Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the disastrous defeat, he returned to office. The Liberal Reform began with the overthrow of Santa Anna by Mexican liberals, ushering in La Reforma beginning in 1854. The Mexican Constitution of 1857 codified the principles of liberalism in law, especially separation of church and state, equality before the law, that included stripping corporate entities (the Catholic Church and indigenous communities) of special status. The Reform sparked a civil war between liberals defending the constitution and conservatives, who opposed it. The War of the Reform saw the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield, but conservatives remained strong and took the opportunity to invite foreign intervention against the liberals in order to forward their own cause. The French Intervention is the period when France invaded Mexico (1861), nominally to collect on defaulted loans to the liberal government of Benito Juárez, but it went further and at the invitation of Mexican conservatives seeking to restore monarchy in Mexico set Maximilian I on the Mexican throne. The US was engaged in its own Civil War (1861–65), so did not attempt to block the foreign intervention. Abraham Lincoln consistently supported the Mexican liberals. At the end of the civil war in the US and the triumph of the Union forces, the US actively aided Mexican liberals against Maximilian's regime. ...
Views: 34 wikipedia tts
American Indian Wars | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: American Indian Wars Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The American Indian Wars (or Indian Wars) is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, and later the United States government and American settlers, against various American Indian tribes. These conflicts occurred within the United States and Canada from the time of the earliest colonial settlements in the 17th century until the 1920s. The various Indian Wars resulted from a wide variety of sources, including cultural clashes, land disputes, and criminal acts committed on both sides. European powers and the colonies also enlisted Indian tribes to help them conduct warfare against one another's colonial settlements. After the American Revolution, many conflicts were local to specific states or regions and frequently involved disputes over land use; some entailed cycles of violent reprisal. The British Royal Proclamation of 1763 included in the Constitution of Canada prohibited white settlers from taking the lands of indigenous peoples in Canada without signing a treaty with them. It continues to be the law in Canada today, and 11 Numbered Treaties covering most of the First Nations lands limited the number of such conflicts. As white settlers spread westward after 1780, the size, duration, and intensity of armed conflicts increased between settlers and Indians. The climax came in the War of 1812, which resulted in the defeat of major Indian coalitions in the Midwest and the South, and conflict with settlers became much less common. Conflicts were resolved by treaty, often through sale or exchange of territory between the federal government and specific tribes. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 authorized the US government to enforce the Indian removal east of the Mississippi River to the other side of the sparsely populated American frontier. The policy of removal was eventually refined to relocate Indian tribes to specially designated and federally protected reservations.
Views: 50 wikipedia tts
Labor history of the United States | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_history_of_the_United_States 00:03:16 1 Organized labor prior to 1900 00:04:31 1.1 Legality and iHunt/i (1842) 00:13:33 1.2 Early federations 00:15:17 1.3 Railroad brotherhoods 00:17:21 1.4 Knights of Labor 00:20:45 1.5 American Federation of Labor 00:24:58 1.6 Western Federation of Miners 00:26:28 1.7 Pullman Strike 00:29:10 1.8 Labor Exchanges and Tokens 00:30:49 2 Organized labor 1900–1920 00:32:45 2.1 Coal strikes, 1900–1902 00:33:34 2.2 Women's Trade Union League 00:34:47 2.3 Industrial Workers of the World 00:37:29 2.4 Government and labor 00:40:26 2.5 World War I 00:41:56 2.6 Strikes of 1919 00:42:39 2.6.1 Coal Strike of 1919 00:44:18 2.6.2 Women telephone operators win strike in 1919 00:45:28 3 Weakness of organized labor 1920–1929 00:49:36 3.1 Great Railroad Strike of 1922 00:51:23 4 Organized labor 1929–1955 00:51:38 4.1 The Great Depression and organized labor 00:53:46 4.2 The Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act of 1932 00:55:33 4.3 FDR and the National Industrial Recovery Act 00:59:30 4.4 The American Federation of Labor: craft unionism vs. industrial unionism 01:02:04 4.5 John L. Lewis and the CIO 01:06:59 4.6 Upsurge in World War II 01:09:45 4.7 Walter Reuther and UAW 01:10:49 4.8 PAC and politics of 1940s 01:12:04 4.8.1 Strike wave of 1945 01:15:18 4.9 Taft-Hartley Act 01:21:19 4.10 Anti-communism 01:24:11 5 Union decline 1955–2016 01:29:03 5.1 AFL and CIO merger 1955 01:32:49 5.2 Conservative attacks 01:35:34 5.3 Civil Rights Movement 01:35:57 5.4 United Farm Workers, 1960s 01:39:24 5.5 Reagan era, 1980s 01:42:26 5.6 Decline of private sector unions 01:44:04 6 2016–present 01:45:29 6.1 Teacher strikes 01:46:44 7 Public-sector unions 01:49:26 7.1 New Deal era 01:50:34 7.2 "Little New Deal" era 01:51:49 7.3 Recent years 01:53:28 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.7485380080636301 Voice name: en-GB-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The labor history of the United States describes the history of organized labor, US labor law, and more general history of working people, in the United States. Beginning in the 1930s, unions became important components of the Democratic Party. However, some historians have not understood why no Labor Party emerged in the United States, in contrast to Western Europe.The nature and power of organized labor is the outcome of historical tensions among counter-acting forces involving workplace rights, wages, working hours, political expression, labor laws, and other working conditions. Organized unions and their umbrella labor federations such as the AFL–CIO and citywide federations have competed, evolved, merged, and split against a backdrop of changing values and priorities, and periodic federal government intervention. As commentator E. J. Dionne has noted, the union movement has traditionally espoused a set of values—solidarity being the most important, the sense that each should look out for the interests of all. From this followed commitments to mutual assistance, to a rough-and-ready sense of equality, to a disdain for elitism, and to a belief that democracy and individual rights did not stop at the plant gate or the office reception room. Dionne notes that these values are "increasingly foreign to American culture". In most industrial nations the labor movement sponsored its own political parties, with the U.S. as a conspicuous exception. Both major American parties vied for union votes, with the Democrats usually much more successful. Labor unions became a central element of the New Deal Coalition that dominated national politics from the 1930s into the mid-1960s during the Fifth Party System. Liberal Republicans who supported unions in the Northeast lost power after 1964.The history of organized labor has been a specialty of scholars since the 1890s, and has produced a large amount of scholarly literature fo ...
Views: 32 wikipedia tts
Timeline of Russian innovation | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:46:47
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Timeline of Russian innovation Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation. The entries in this timeline fall into the following categories: Indigenous inventions, like airliners, AC transformers, radio receivers, television, artificial satellites, ICBMs Products and objects that are uniquely Russian, like Saint Basil's Cathedral, Matryoshka dolls, Russian vodka Products and objects with superlative characteristics, like the Tsar Bomba, the AK-47, and Typhoon class submarine Scientific and medical discoveries, like the periodic law, vitamins and stem cellsThis timeline examines scientific and medical discoveries, products and technologies introduced by various peoples of Russia and its predecessor states, regardless of ethnicity, and also lists inventions by naturalized immigrant citizens. Certain innovations achieved by a national operation may also may be included in this timeline, in cases where the Russian side played a major role in such projects.
Views: 113 wikipedia tts
Joseph Stalin | Wikipedia audio article
 
02:12:58
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Joseph Stalin Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Joseph Stalin (born Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian ethnicity. He ruled the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, holding the titles of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1952 and the nation's Premier from 1941 to 1953. Initially presiding over an oligarchic one-party system that governed by plurality, he became the de facto dictator of the Soviet Union by the 1930s. Ideologically committed to the Leninist interpretation of Marxism, Stalin helped to formalise these ideas as Marxism–Leninism, while his own policies became known as Stalinism. Born to a poor family in Gori, Russian Empire (now Georgia), Stalin began his revolutionary career by joining the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party as a youth. He edited the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings, and protection rackets. Repeatedly arrested, he underwent several internal exiles. After the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia during the 1917 October Revolution, Stalin joined the party's governing Politburo, where he was instrumental in overseeing the Soviet Union's establishment in 1922. As Lenin fell ill and then died in 1924, Stalin assumed leadership over the country. During Stalin's rule, "Socialism in One Country" became a central tenet of the party's dogma, and Lenin's New Economic Policy was replaced with a centralized command economy. Under the Five-Year Plan system, the country underwent collectivisation and rapid industrialization but experienced significant disruptions in food production that contributed to the famine of 1932–33. To eradicate those regarded as "enemies of the working class", Stalin instituted the "Great Purge", in which over a million were imprisoned and at least 700,000 executed between 1934 and 1939. Stalin's government promoted Marxism–Leninism abroad through the Communist International and supported anti-fascist movements throughout Europe during the 1930s, particularly in the Spanish Civil War. In 1939, it signed a non-aggression pact with Nazi Germany, resulting in their joint invasion of Poland. Germany ended the pact by invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Despite initial setbacks, the Soviet Red Army repelled the German incursion and captured Berlin in 1945, ending World War II in Europe. The Soviets annexed the Baltic states and helped establish Soviet-aligned governments throughout Central and Eastern Europe, China and North Korea. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged from the war as the two world superpowers. Tensions arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U.S.-backed Western Bloc which became known as the Cold War. Stalin led his country through its post-war reconstruction, during which it developed a nuclear weapon in 1949. In these years, the country experienced another major famine and an anti-semitic campaign peaking in the Doctors' plot. Stalin died in 1953 and was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced his predecessor and initiated a de-Stalinisation process throughout Soviet society. Widely considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Stalin was the subject of a pervasive personality cult within the international Marxist–Leninist movement, for whom Stalin was a champion of socialism and the working class. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Stalin has retained popularity in Russia and Georgia as a victorious wartime leader who established the Soviet Union as a major world power. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been widely condemned for overseeing mass repressions, ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of executions, and famines which caused the deaths of millions.
Views: 72 wikipedia tts
List of slaves | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: List of slaves 00:00:26 1 A 00:08:00 2 B 00:11:53 3 C 00:16:41 4 D 00:19:41 5 E 00:24:22 6 F 00:25:49 7 G 00:28:57 8 H 00:31:33 9 I 00:33:14 10 J 00:42:19 11 K 00:43:42 12 L 00:47:16 13 M 00:55:40 14 N 00:57:32 15 O 00:58:59 16 P 01:03:58 17 Q 01:04:33 18 R 01:07:44 19 S 01:13:20 20 T 01:16:29 21 U 01:16:50 22 V 01:18:53 23 W 01:21:12 24 X 01:21:25 25 Y 01:22:32 26 Z 01:23:45 27 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Slavery is a social-economic system under which persons are enslaved: deprived of personal freedom and forced to perform labor or services without compensation. These people are referred to as slaves. The following is a list of historical people who were enslaved at some point during their lives, in alphabetical order by first name. Several names have been added under the letter representing the person's last name.
Views: 124 wikipedia tts
Jamaica | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:09:54
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Jamaica Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ In case you don't find one that you were looking for, put a comment. This video uses Google TTS en-US-Standard-D voice. SUMMARY ======= Jamaica ( ( listen)) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres (4,240 sq mi) in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres (90 mi) south of Cuba, and 191 kilometres (119 mi) west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Previously inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, and the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers. The island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy highly dependent on African slaves. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans mainly have African ancestry, with significant European, Chinese, Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora around the world, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as the head of government and Prime Minister of Jamaica from March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
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Seattle | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:20:26
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Seattle Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Seattle ( (listen) see-AT-əl) is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U.S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, and ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U.S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the contiguous United States. The city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean) and Lake Washington, about 100 miles (160 km) south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015.The Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers. Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851. The settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was partially due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing. The Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region; Microsoft founder Bill Gates is a Seattleite by birth. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, and major airline Alaska Airlines was founded in SeaTac, Washington, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport. The stream of new software, biotechnology, and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by almost 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District. The jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, and others. Seattle is also the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Soundgarden, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge.
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Labour law | Wikipedia audio article
 
43:37
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Labour law Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Labour law (also known as labor law or employment law) mediates the relationship between workers, employing entities, trade unions and the government. Collective labour law relates to the tripartite relationship between employee, employer and union. Individual labour law concerns employees' rights at work and through the contract for work. Employment standards are social norms (in some cases also technical standards) for the minimum socially acceptable conditions under which employees or contractors are allowed to work. Government agencies (such as the former US Employment Standards Administration) enforce labour law (legislative, regulatory, or judicial).
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Indigenous Australians | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:36:30
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Indigenous Australians Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years ago.Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is also a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures, customs and languages. In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken; it is currently estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use, but only 13 of these are not considered endangered. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English (which also has a tangible influence of Indigenous languages in the phonology and grammatical structure). The population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European invasion beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers also contributed to depopulation. The characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed.Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
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Utah | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:16:21
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Utah Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Utah ( YOO-taw, -tah listen) is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U.S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, and 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is mostly concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains approximately 2.5 million people; and Washington County in Southern Utah, with over 160,000 residents. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, and Nevada to the west. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. Approximately 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This greatly influences Utahn culture and daily life. The LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City.The state is a center of transportation, education, information technology and research, government services, mining, and a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation. In 2013, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that Utah had the second fastest-growing population of any state. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah also has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U.S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic, lifestyle, and health-related outlook metrics.
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History of Germany | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Germany 00:06:46 1 Prehistory 00:08:00 2 Germanic tribes, 750 BC – 768 AD 00:08:13 2.1 Migration and conquest 00:11:16 2.2 Stem Duchies and Marches 00:12:56 2.3 Frankish Empire 00:16:44 3 Middle Ages 00:16:52 3.1 Foundation of the Holy Roman Empire 00:18:17 3.2 Otto the Great 00:20:54 3.3 Hanseatic League 00:21:36 3.4 Eastward expansion 00:22:10 3.5 Church and state 00:26:25 3.6 Change and reform 00:28:11 3.7 Towns and cities 00:30:00 3.8 Women 00:31:15 3.9 Science and culture 00:32:56 4 Early modern Germany 00:33:11 4.1 Reformation 00:35:56 4.2 Thirty Years War, 1618–1648 00:37:55 4.3 Culture and literacy 00:39:54 4.4 Science 00:40:53 5 1648–1815 00:41:58 5.1 Wars 00:44:14 5.2 Smaller states 00:46:45 5.3 Nobility 00:47:38 5.4 Peasants and rural life 00:50:59 5.5 Bourgeois values spread to rural Germany 00:52:39 5.6 Enlightenment 00:55:39 5.6.1 Women 00:56:50 5.7 French Revolution, 1789–1815 01:00:44 6 1815–1867 01:00:55 6.1 Overview 01:01:53 6.2 German Confederation 01:02:50 6.3 Society and economy 01:02:59 6.3.1 Population 01:04:19 6.3.2 Industrialization 01:05:54 6.3.3 Urbanization 01:07:00 6.3.4 Railways 01:08:46 6.3.5 Newspapers and magazines 01:09:51 6.3.6 Science and culture 01:12:27 6.3.7 Religion 01:15:35 6.4 Politics of restoration and revolution 01:15:45 6.4.1 After Napoleon 01:17:43 6.4.2 1848 01:18:32 6.4.3 1850s 01:19:12 6.4.4 Bismarck takes charge, 1862–1866 01:21:13 6.4.5 North German Federation, 1866–1871 01:21:54 7 German Empire, 1871–1918 01:22:06 7.1 Overview 01:23:53 7.2 Age of Bismarck 01:24:01 7.2.1 The new empire 01:27:33 7.2.2 Classes 01:27:41 7.2.2.1 Aristocracy 01:29:50 7.2.2.2 Middle class 01:30:35 7.2.2.3 Working class 01:31:52 7.2.3 Kulturkampf 01:34:14 7.2.4 Foreign policy 01:37:06 7.3 Wilhelminian Era 01:37:14 7.3.1 Wilhelm II. 01:38:08 7.3.2 Alliances and diplomacy 01:41:05 7.3.3 Economy 01:43:20 7.3.4 Women 01:44:33 7.3.5 Colonies 01:45:24 7.4 World War I 01:45:33 7.4.1 Causes 01:47:13 7.4.2 Western Front 01:48:17 7.4.3 Eastern Front 01:49:13 7.4.4 1918 01:50:01 7.5 Homefront 01:51:17 7.6 Revolution 1918 01:54:40 8 Weimar Republic, 1919–1933 01:54:52 8.1 Overview 01:56:08 8.2 The early years 01:59:27 8.3 Reparations 02:00:47 8.4 Economic collapse and political problems, 1929–1933 02:02:58 8.5 Science and culture 02:04:48 9 Nazi Germany, 1933–1945 02:06:25 9.1 Establishment of the Nazi regime 02:10:20 9.2 Antisemitism and the Holocaust 02:12:30 9.3 Military 02:13:23 9.4 Women 02:15:27 9.5 Foreign policy 02:18:01 9.6 World War II 02:20:34 10 Germany during the Cold War, 1945–1990 02:21:45 10.1 Post-war chaos 02:26:02 10.2 East Germany 02:30:08 10.3 West Germany (Bonn Republic) 02:31:10 10.3.1 Economic miracle 02:32:28 10.3.2 1948 currency reform 02:34:38 10.3.3 Adenauer 02:35:34 10.3.4 Erhard 02:37:26 10.3.5 Grand coalition 02:38:06 10.3.6 Guest workers 02:39:09 10.3.7 Brandt and Ostpolitik 02:40:33 10.3.8 Economic crisis of 1970s 02:43:13 10.4 Kohl 02:43:59 10.5 Reunification 02:45:13 11 Federal Republic of Germany, 1990–present 02:45:24 11.1 Schröder 02:46:21 11.2 Merkel 02:49:01 12 Historiography 02:49:10 12.1 Sonderweg debate 02:50:38 13 See also 02:50:47 14 Notes 02:50:55 14.1 Footnotes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.9630936642269607 Voice name: en-AU-Wavenet-C "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The concept of Germany as a distinct region in central Europe can be traced to Roman commander Julius Caesar, who referred to the unconquered area east of the Rhine as Germania, thus distinguishing it from Gaul (France), which he had conquered. The victory of the Germanic tribes in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) prevented annexation by the Roman Empire, although the Roman provinces of Germania Superior and Germania Inferior were established along the Rhine. Following the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the Franks conqu ...
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Horace Greeley | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Horace Greeley Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American author and statesman who was the founder and editor of the New-York Tribune, among the great newspapers of its time. Long active in politics, he served briefly as a congressman from New York, and was the unsuccessful candidate of the new Liberal Republican party in the 1872 presidential election against incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant. Greeley was born to a poor family in Amherst, New Hampshire. He was apprenticed to a printer in Vermont and went to New York City in 1831 to seek his fortune. He wrote for or edited several publications and involved himself in Whig Party politics, taking a significant part in William Henry Harrison's successful 1840 presidential campaign. The following year, he founded the Tribune, which became the highest-circulating newspaper in the country through weekly editions sent by mail. Among many other issues, he urged the settlement of the American West, which he saw as a land of opportunity for the young and the unemployed. He popularized the slogan "Go West, young man, and grow up with the country." He endlessly promoted utopian reforms such as socialism, vegetarianism, agrarianism, feminism, and temperance, while hiring the best talent he could find. Greeley's alliance with William H. Seward and Thurlow Weed led to him serving three months in the House of Representatives, where he angered many by investigating Congress in his newspaper. In 1854, he helped found and may have named the Republican Party. Republican newspapers across the nation regularly reprinted his editorials. During the Civil War, he mostly supported Lincoln, though urging him to commit to the end of slavery before the President was willing to do so. After Lincoln's assassination, he supported the Radical Republicans in opposition to President Andrew Johnson. He broke with Republican President Ulysses Grant because of corruption and Greeley's sense that Reconstruction policies were no longer needed. Greeley was the new Liberal Republican Party's presidential nominee in 1872. He lost in a landslide despite having the additional support of the Democratic Party. He was devastated by the death of his wife, who died five days before the election, and died himself three weeks later, before the Electoral College had met.
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John Sherman | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: John Sherman 00:02:25 1 Early life and education 00:05:44 2 House of Representatives 00:07:16 2.1 Kansas 00:09:15 2.2 Lecompton and financial reform 00:11:24 2.3 House leadership 00:14:52 3 Senate 00:16:04 3.1 Financing the Civil War 00:20:22 3.2 Slavery and Reconstruction 00:24:21 3.3 Post-war finances 00:27:56 3.4 Coinage Act of 1873 00:32:08 3.5 Resumption of specie payments 00:33:56 3.6 Election of 1876 00:35:48 4 Secretary of the Treasury 00:36:46 4.1 Preparing for specie resumption 00:37:42 4.2 Bland–Allison Act 00:39:57 4.3 Civil service reform 00:42:13 5 Election of 1880 00:46:05 6 Return to the Senate 00:47:26 6.1 Garfield's assassination and the Pendleton Act 00:49:38 6.2 The Mongrel Tariff 00:51:14 6.3 Chinese immigration 00:52:57 6.4 Further presidential ambitions 00:56:14 6.5 Interstate commerce 00:57:24 6.6 Sherman Antitrust Act 00:59:36 6.7 Silver Purchase Act 01:03:05 6.8 Final years in the Senate 01:04:17 7 Secretary of State 01:06:23 8 Retirement, death, and legacy Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= John Sherman (May 10, 1823 – October 22, 1900) was a politician from the U.S. state of Ohio during the American Civil War and into the late nineteenth century. A member of the Republican Party, he served in both houses of the U.S. Congress. He also served as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of State. Sherman sought the Republican presidential nomination three times, coming closest in 1888, but was never chosen by the party. His brothers included General William Tecumseh Sherman; Charles Taylor Sherman, a federal judge in Ohio; and Hoyt Sherman, an Iowa banker. Born in Lancaster, Ohio, Sherman later moved to Mansfield, where he began a law career before entering politics. Initially a Whig, Sherman was among those anti-slavery activists who formed what became the Republican Party. He served three terms in the House of Representatives. As a member of the House, Sherman traveled to Kansas to investigate the unrest between pro- and anti-slavery partisans there. He rose in party leadership and was nearly elected Speaker in 1859. Sherman was elevated to the Senate in 1861. As a senator, he was a leader in financial matters, helping to redesign the United States' monetary system to meet the needs of a nation torn apart by civil war. After the war, he worked to produce legislation that would restore the nation's credit abroad and produce a stable, gold-backed currency at home. Serving as Secretary of the Treasury in the administration of Rutherford B. Hayes, Sherman continued his efforts for financial stability and solvency, overseeing an end to wartime inflationary measures and a return to gold-backed money. He returned to the Senate after his term expired, serving there for a further sixteen years. During that time he continued his work on financial legislation, as well as writing and debating laws on immigration, business competition law, and the regulation of interstate commerce. Sherman was the principal author of the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, which was signed into law by President Benjamin Harrison. In 1897, President William McKinley appointed him Secretary of State. Failing health and declining faculties made him unable to handle the burdens of the job, and he retired in 1898 at the start of the Spanish–American War. Sherman died at his home in Washington, D.C. in 1900.
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